Series: IMF Working Papers
Author(s): Ashok Bhatia
Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Publication Date: 01 October 2002
Keywords: early warning, risk, sovereign, vulnerability, bonds, bond, financial system, sovereign default, external debt, Market Structure and Pricing: General
This paper describes and evaluates the sovereign credit ratings methodologies of Standard & Poor's, Moody's Investors Service, and Fitch Ratings. A simple definition of ratings failure-based on ratings stability-is...