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1 Australia

1 Australia »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

Compared with most of the smaller industrial economies, Australia has a small external trade sector—foreign trade amounts to approximately 15 percent of GDP. Although this and abundant energy resources have...

2 Austria

2 Austria »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

The openness of the Austrian economy, in which foreign trade amounts to approximately one fourth of GDP, makes it vulnerable to external disturbances; consequently, a major aim of fiscal policy has been to s...

3 Belgium

3 Belgium »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

Following several years of strong growth, real GDP declined by almost 2 percent in 1975; after a sharp recovery in 1976, when over 5 percent real growth was registered, economic activity again turned sluggis...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

The Demise of the Nation State?

The Demise of the Nation State? »

Source: The Demise of the Nation State?

Volume/Issue: 1998/120

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vito Tanzi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1998

ISBN: 9781451854244

Keywords: globalization, spillovers, government role, fiscal federalism, tax revenue, public spending, taxation, government expenditure

The globalization of economic activities that is characterizing many economies raises questions about the future of the nation state. This paper discusses this trend and shows that cross-frontiers spillovers have b...

Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe

Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe »

Source: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe : Statistical Appendix

Volume/Issue: 2004/107

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 April 2004

ISBN: 9781451835014

Keywords: expenditure, central bank, external debt, debt relief, capital expenditure, Sao Tome and Principe,

The statistical data on gross domestic product and expenditure, land distribution, production of principal agricultural crops, energy production and consumption, imports of petroleum products, cost structure of pet...

4 Denmark

4 Denmark »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

The relatively open Danish economy, where foreign trade amounts to 25 to 30 percent of GDP, was severely affected by the two oil crises and the ensuing global recession. Denmark’s heavy dependence on importe...

The Effects of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)on National Fiscal Sustainability

The Effects of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)on National Fiscal Sustainability »

Source: The Effects of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)on National Fiscal Sustainability

Volume/Issue: 1996/72

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesco Mongelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1996

ISBN: 9781451849295

Keywords: fiscal sustainability, public debt, fiscal discipline, fiscal variables, government expenditure

This paper presents a methodology to analyze the responsiveness of fiscal sustainability to the “endogenous fiscal discipline” that will be strengthened by the EMU. This discipline arises in response...

Expenditure Ceilings—A Survey

Expenditure Ceilings—A Survey »

Source: Expenditure Ceilings-A Survey

Volume/Issue: 2008/282

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gösta Ljungman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2008

ISBN: 9781451871401

Keywords: Expenditure ceilings, expenditure, expenditure ceiling, government expenditure,

This paper looks at the factors that have to be considered when designing an aggregate expenditure ceiling. It is argued that expenditure ceilings are effective in promoting fiscal discipline and sustainability, bu...

5 Finland

5 Finland »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

A large external sector with imports and exports amounting to almost 30 percent of GDP makes the Finnish economy vulnerable to external influences; this vulnerability is accentuated by the country’s reliance...