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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Measuring the Role of Subnational Governments

Measuring the Role of Subnational Governments »

Volume/Issue: 1991/8

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Levin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451842456.001

ISBN: 9781451842456

Keywords: expenditures, expenditure, government expenditures, general government expenditures, public finance

To measure subnational governments, only external money flows are counted, excluding intra-level transactions in measuring a level of government and all intergovernmental transactions in measuring general governmen...

Measuring the Role of Subnational Governments

Measuring the Role of Subnational Governments »

Source: Measuring the Role of Subnational Governments

Volume/Issue: 1991/8

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Levin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1991

ISBN: 9781451842456

Keywords: expenditures, expenditure, government expenditures, general government expenditures, public finance

To measure subnational governments, only external money flows are counted, excluding intra-level transactions in measuring a level of government and all intergovernmental transactions in measuring general governmen...