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1 Australia

1 Australia »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

Compared with most of the smaller industrial economies, Australia has a small external trade sector—foreign trade amounts to approximately 15 percent of GDP. Although this and abundant energy resources have...

2 Austria

2 Austria »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

The openness of the Austrian economy, in which foreign trade amounts to approximately one fourth of GDP, makes it vulnerable to external disturbances; consequently, a major aim of fiscal policy has been to s...

3 Belgium

3 Belgium »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

Following several years of strong growth, real GDP declined by almost 2 percent in 1975; after a sharp recovery in 1976, when over 5 percent real growth was registered, economic activity again turned sluggis...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

4 Denmark

4 Denmark »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

The relatively open Danish economy, where foreign trade amounts to 25 to 30 percent of GDP, was severely affected by the two oil crises and the ensuing global recession. Denmark’s heavy dependence on importe...

5 Finland

5 Finland »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

A large external sector with imports and exports amounting to almost 30 percent of GDP makes the Finnish economy vulnerable to external influences; this vulnerability is accentuated by the country’s reliance...

3 Fiscal Policy, 1972–82, An Overview

3 Fiscal Policy, 1972–82, An Overview »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

This chapter contains a broad account of the pursuit of fiscal policy over a decade that witnessed the largest economic imbalances experienced on a global basis in the postwar period. While the sheer magnitu...

Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82 »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934539.071

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

Written by Gisli Blondal, former Advisor in the IMF's Fiscal Affairs Department, the book examines the fiscal policy pursued by 13 of the smaller industrial countries over the period 1972-82....

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

Written by Gisli Blondal, former Advisor in the IMF's Fiscal Affairs Department, the book examines the fiscal policy pursued by 13 of the smaller industrial countries over the period 1972-82....

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

Written by Gisli Blondal, former Advisor in the IMF's Fiscal Affairs Department, the book examines the fiscal policy pursued by 13 of the smaller industrial countries over the period 1972-82....