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1. Advanced Europe: Reversing the Slide

1. Advanced Europe: Reversing the Slide »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Europe : Navigating Stormy Waters

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2011

ISBN: 9781616351281

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal consolidation, labor market, domestic demand, unemployment

The euro area crisis has entered into a new stage in the context of a marked global slowdown. Tensions have moved from the euro area periphery to some core economies, prompting new policy interv...

Annex

Annex »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Europe : Navigating Stormy Waters

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2011

ISBN: 9781616351281

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal consolidation, labor market, domestic demand, unemployment

(a) Constructing a Trade Interconnectedness Index The trade interconnectedness index (TII) is the weighted average of indicators capturing the importance of bilateral trade between c...

Appendix. Europe: IMF-Supported Arrangements59

Appendix. Europe: IMF-Supported Arrangements59 »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Europe : Navigating Stormy Waters

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2011

ISBN: 9781616351281

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal consolidation, labor market, domestic demand, unemployment

(As of September 7, 2011) Country...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

4. East-West Economic and Financial Linkages in Europe

4. East-West Economic and Financial Linkages in Europe »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Europe : Navigating Stormy Waters

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2011

ISBN: 9781616351281

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal consolidation, labor market, domestic demand, unemployment

Trade and financial linkages between Western Europe and Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe (CESEE) have increased sharply over the past one and a half decades. 48...

2. Emerging Europe: Reducing Vulnerabilities to Prevent Financial Turmoil

2. Emerging Europe: Reducing Vulnerabilities to Prevent Financial Turmoil »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Europe : Navigating Stormy Waters

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2011

ISBN: 9781616351281

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal consolidation, labor market, domestic demand, unemployment

Emerging Europe’s recovery from the deep crisis of 2008/09 continued in the first half of 2011, and growth also picked up in the Baltic countries and Southeastern Europe—the regions most affecte...

Subnational Health Spending and Soft Budget Constraints in OECD Countries

Subnational Health Spending and Soft Budget Constraints in OECD Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2010/147

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Crivelli , Adam Leive , and Thomas Stratmann

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455201303.001

ISBN: 9781455201303

Keywords: Healthcare spending, decentralization, soft budget constraints, health spending, budget constraints, public health, health expenditure, National Government Expenditures and Health,

Government spending on health has grown as a percent of GDP over the last 40 years in industrialized countries. Widespread decentralization of healthcare systems has often accompanied this increase in spending. In...

3. Long-Term Growth Differentials within Europe

3. Long-Term Growth Differentials within Europe »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Europe : Navigating Stormy Waters

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2011

ISBN: 9781616351281

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal consolidation, labor market, domestic demand, unemployment

In the past decade, growth rates in GDP per capita have differed markedly among European countries, from zero in Italy and Portugal to more than 4 percent in the best performers. To a large exte...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Europe
			: Navigating Stormy Waters

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Europe : Navigating Stormy Waters »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616351281.086

ISBN: 9781616351281

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal consolidation, labor market, domestic demand, unemployment

Following a strong showing in early 2011, the economies across Europe now face the prospect of a pronounced slowdown, as global growth has softened, risk aversion has risen, and strains in Europe's sovereign debt a...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Europe : Navigating Stormy Waters

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2011

ISBN: 9781616351281

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal consolidation, labor market, domestic demand, unemployment

Following a strong showing in early 2011, the economies across Europe now face the prospect of a pronounced slowdown, as global growth has softened, risk aversion has risen, and strains in Europe's sovereign debt a...