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4 Addressing the Procyclical Bias

4 Addressing the Procyclical Bias »

Source: Promoting Fiscal Discipline

Series: Books

Author(s): Manmohan Kumar , and Teresa Ter-Minassian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 October 2007

ISBN: 9781589066090

Keywords: fiscal policy, expenditure, fiscal performance, fiscal rules, fiscal discipline

Since political economy factors are an important determinant of procyclicality of policies, measures to contain the misuse of fiscal policy discretion can be benefic...

Analysis of Major Expenditure Categories

Analysis of Major Expenditure Categories »

Source: Public Expenditure Handbook : A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countries

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1991

ISBN: 9781557752222

Keywords: expenditure, public expenditure, military, health care, fiscal policy

...

APPENDIX I Incidence Analyses and Income Redistribution

APPENDIX I Incidence Analyses and Income Redistribution »

Source: Fund-Supported Programs, Fiscal Policy, and Income Distribution

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934645

Keywords: taxation, expenditure, salaries, subsidies, income distribution

Most studies of the income distributional effects of public policy fall within the category of “incidence analyses” of taxation and expenditure. They either analyze the effects of particular measures or, if...

APPENDIX II Some Empirical Evidence on Price and Subsidy Policy

APPENDIX II Some Empirical Evidence on Price and Subsidy Policy »

Source: Fund-Supported Programs, Fiscal Policy, and Income Distribution

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934645

Keywords: taxation, expenditure, salaries, subsidies, income distribution

Empirical information concerning the direct effect of price and subsidy policy on income distribution is scarce and of questionable quality. In addition, existing studies do not cover a sufficient range of c...

APPENDIX III A Review of Policies in Fund Programs, 1980–84

APPENDIX III A Review of Policies in Fund Programs, 1980–84 »

Source: Fund-Supported Programs, Fiscal Policy, and Income Distribution

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934645

Keywords: taxation, expenditure, salaries, subsidies, income distribution

Selection of the Sample The Fund approved 117 stand-by programs and 23 extended facilities from January 1980 to December 1984, for 68 countries. Twenty-two countries had programs in...

Brazil: 2019 Article IV Consultation—Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Brazil

New
Brazil: 2019 Article IV Consultation—Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Brazil »

Source: Brazil : 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Brazil

Volume/Issue: 2019/243

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 July 2019

ISBN: 9781513508368

Keywords: Balance of payments, Central banks, Economic indicators, Expenditures, Gross domestic product, BCB, pension reform, primary balance, BNDES, percent

The economic recovery after the 2015-16 recession has disappointed, with real GDP growing by only 1.1 percent in 2017 and 2018. Inflation is close to target, hovering around 4 percent. Monetary policy is accommodat...

Brazil: Staff Report for the 2019 Article IV Consultation—Debt Sustainability Analysis

New
Brazil: Staff Report for the 2019 Article IV Consultation—Debt Sustainability Analysis »

Source: Brazil : 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Brazil

Volume/Issue: 2019/243

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 July 2019

ISBN: 9781513508368

Keywords: Balance of payments, Central banks, Economic indicators, Expenditures, Gross domestic product, BCB, pension reform, primary balance, BNDES, percent

The economic recovery after the 2015-16 recession has disappointed, with real GDP growing by only 1.1 percent in 2017 and 2018. Inflation is close to target, hovering around 4 percent. Monetary policy is accommodat...

Brazil: Staff Report for the 2019 Article IV Consultation—Informational Annex

New
Brazil: Staff Report for the 2019 Article IV Consultation—Informational Annex »

Source: Brazil : 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Brazil

Volume/Issue: 2019/243

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 July 2019

ISBN: 9781513508368

Keywords: Balance of payments, Central banks, Economic indicators, Expenditures, Gross domestic product, BCB, pension reform, primary balance, BNDES, percent

The economic recovery after the 2015-16 recession has disappointed, with real GDP growing by only 1.1 percent in 2017 and 2018. Inflation is close to target, hovering around 4 percent. Monetary policy is accommodat...

A Brazilian-Type Debt Crisis: Simple Analytics

A Brazilian-Type Debt Crisis: Simple Analytics »

Source: IMF Staff Papers, Volume 51, No. 1

Volume: 51

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 April 2004

ISBN: 9781589063228

Keywords: expenditure, bribe, government expenditure, bribes, Banks and banking, Special Drawing Rights (SDR), Capital Stock, Cointegration, Demand (economic Theory), Empirical Methods

This first issue of Volume 51 for 2004 includes a new paper by Peter B. Clark and Jacques J. Polak, along with a tribute from the Editor to Mr. Polak in honor of his 90th birthday. This issue also launches a new fe...

CHAPTER 5: Conclusions

CHAPTER 5: Conclusions »

Source: Fiscal Risks : Sources, Disclosure, and Management

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Lusine Lusinyan , Aliona Cebotari , Ricardo Velloso , Jeffrey Davis , Amine Mati , Murray Petrie , and Paolo Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 January 2009

ISBN: 9781589067905

Keywords: Budgets, Debt sustainability, Government expenditures, Fiscal sustainability, Public debt, Risk management, fiscal risks, contingent liabilities, fiscal risk, fiscal transparency

Various types of shocks cause fiscal outcomes to deviate from budgets and expectations—often by large amounts. Evidence presented in this paper has shown that macroeconomic shocks and calls on contingent lia...