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Assessing Options for Nordic-Baltic Co-operation in Biosafety

Assessing Options for Nordic-Baltic Co-operation in Biosafety »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

ISBN: 9789289312110

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Genetically Modified Organisms, Emphasis on Environmental Aspects, Risk Assessment and Monitoring, Exchanging Information and Experiences, Reports from Group Discussions, Nordic and Baltic Authorities

This report is the outcome of a meeting arranged to assess the options and need for co-operation of Nordic and Baltic authorities regarding safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), with the emphasis on envi...

Comparative study of Nordic teacher-training programmes

Comparative study of Nordic teacher-training programmes »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2009

ISBN: 9789289318457

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Teacher-training Programmes, Comparative Study, Exchanges of Information, Encourage Mutual Inspiration and Learning, Student Characteristics, Terms and Conditions

This is the first report to compare the teacher-training programmes in all of the Nordic countries. The main purposes of this comparative study are to create the basis for exchanges of information and to encourage...

The Credibility of Nordic Exchange Rate Bands: 1987-1991

The Credibility of Nordic Exchange Rate Bands: 1987-1991 »

Source: The Credibility of Nordic Exchange Rate Bands : 1987-1991

Volume/Issue: 1992/3

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sami Geadah , Lars Svensson , and Tapio Saavalainen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1992

ISBN: 9781451841817

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rate band, forward exchange, foreign exchange

The credibility of the exchange rate bands in the Nordic countries during 1987-91 is examined with two tests. The results suggest that the credibility of Finland’s exchange rate band within a twelve-month ho...

EU REACH Enforcement project
			: Final report 2008

EU REACH Enforcement project : Final report 2008 »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

ISBN: 9789289317177

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, EU Regulation on Chemicals, Implementation of REACH, Nordic Chemicals Group, Netherlands Granted Funds, Elaborate Work Division, Co-operation and Information Exchange

REACH, the new EU Regulation on chemicals, implies a significant restructuring and enlargement in the field of chemicals regulation, and thus also of enforcement. The importance of the Forum for enforcement include...

Exchange Market Pressures and Speculative Capital Flows in Selected European Countries

Exchange Market Pressures and Speculative Capital Flows in Selected European Countries »

Source: Exchange Market Pressures and Speculative Capital Flows in Selected European Countries

Volume/Issue: 1994/21

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ceyla Pazarbasioglu , and Inci Ötker

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 1994

ISBN: 9781451921571

Keywords: exchange rate, probability, foreign exchange, equation, fixed exchange rate

This paper estimates a speculative attack model of currency crises in an attempt to identify the roles of macroeconomic fundamentals and speculative market pressures in the recent crisis, as well as earlier devalua...

Explicit and Implicit Targets in Open Economies

Explicit and Implicit Targets in Open Economies »

Source: Explicit and Implicit Targets in Open Economies

Volume/Issue: 2005/176

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Silvia Sgherri

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2005

ISBN: 9781451861952

Keywords: Inflation targeting, interest rate rules, exchange rates, inflation, central bank, inflation targeting regime, Money and Interest Rates: General,

Under a flexible inflation targeting regime, should policymakers avoid any reaction to movements in the foreign exchange market? Using data for six advanced open economies explicitly targeting inflation, the paper...

Fostering Growth in Europe Now

Fostering Growth in Europe Now »

Source: Fostering Growth in Europe Now

Volume/Issue: 2012/7

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Bergljot Barkbu , Jesmin Rahman , and Rodrigo Valdes

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 June 2012

ISBN: 9781475504644

Keywords: Euro Area, Real effective exchange rates, Macroprudential Policy, Growth, unemployment, macroeconomic policy, structural reform, fiscal policy, labor market, employment

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Global Equilibrium Exchange Rates

Global Equilibrium Exchange Rates »

Source: Global Equilibrium Exchange Rates : Euro, Dollar, 'Ins,' 'Outs,' and Other Major Currencies in a Panel Cointegration Framework

Volume/Issue: 1999/175

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Susana Garcia Cervero , J. Lopez , Enrique Alberola Ila , and Angel Ubide

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1999

ISBN: 9781451858730

Keywords: Equilibrium Exchange Rates, Panel Cointegration, exchange rate, cointegration, exchange rates, real exchange rate, statistics

This paper presents a methodology for calculating bilateral equilibrium exchange rates for a panel of currencies in a way that guarantees global consistency. The methodology has three parts: a theoretical model tha...

Growth, Nontradables, and Price Convergence in the Baltics

Growth, Nontradables, and Price Convergence in the Baltics »

Source: Growth, Nontradables, and Price Convergence in the Baltics

Volume/Issue: 1995/45

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anthony Richards , and Gunnar Tersman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1995

ISBN: 9781451974317

Keywords: price level, exchange rate, inflation, exchange rates, real exchange rate

This paper reviews the recent real exchange rate appreciation observed in the three Baltic countries. Until now, this phenomenon may be viewed primarily as a consequence of the undervalued real exchange rates of th...

IMF Executive Board Concludes 2012 Article IV Consultation and Second Post-Program Monitoring Discussions, and Ex-Post Evaluation of Exceptional Access Under the 2008 Stand-By Arrangement with the Republic of Latvia

IMF Executive Board Concludes 2012 Article IV Consultation and Second Post-Program Monitoring Discussions, and Ex-Post Evaluation of Exceptional Access Under the 2008 Stand-By Arrangement with the Republic of Latvia »

Source: Republic of Latvia : Ex Post Evaluation of Exceptional Access Under the 2008 Stand-By Arrangement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Latvia

Volume/Issue: 2013/30

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 January 2013

ISBN: 9781475526677

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rate peg, fixed exchange rate, fixed exchange rate regime, real exchange rate

The IMF has approved an exceptional access Stand-By Arrangement for Latvia. The program is part of a coordinated international effort that has improved financial and economic stability. By early 2008, the fast grow...