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Appendix I. Measurement and Accounting Issues

Appendix I. Measurement and Accounting Issues »

Source: Quasi-Fiscal Operations of Public Financial Institutions

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): George Mackenzie , and Peter Stella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 1996

ISBN: 9781557755834

Keywords: central bank, inflation, monetary fund, central banks, exchange rate

Various problems that arise in defining QFA, and in measuring the quasi-fiscal component of the operations of central banks and other PFIs, were briefly discussed in the text, as were the difficulties that c...

Appendix II Varieties of Country Experience

Appendix II Varieties of Country Experience »

Source: Quasi-Fiscal Operations of Public Financial Institutions

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): George Mackenzie , and Peter Stella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 1996

ISBN: 9781557755834

Keywords: central bank, inflation, monetary fund, central banks, exchange rate

This appendix describes a variety of QFAs that have been practiced in IMF member countries. Its intent is to give a flavor of the many forms that such practices can take; the countries whose experience is ci...

Appendix III Five Country Case Studies

Appendix III Five Country Case Studies »

Source: Quasi-Fiscal Operations of Public Financial Institutions

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): George Mackenzie , and Peter Stella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 1996

ISBN: 9781557755834

Keywords: central bank, inflation, monetary fund, central banks, exchange rate

Uruguay The history of QFA in the central bank and certain other PFIs since the early 1970s 50 can be divided roughly into three periods: the first,...

Are Pegged and Intermediate Regimes More Crisis Prone?

Are Pegged and Intermediate Regimes More Crisis Prone? »

Source: Are Pegged and Intermediate Regimes More Crisis Prone?

Volume/Issue: 2003/223

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrea Bubula , and Inci Ötker

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

ISBN: 9781451875317

Keywords: bipolar view, pegged regimes, soft pegs, floats, intermediate regimes, exchange market pressure, exchange rate, exchange rate regimes, exchange rates, exchange rate regime

This paper provides evidence on the susceptibility of different types of exchange rate regimes to currency crises during 1990-2001. It explores the incidence of crises, identified as episodes of severe exchange mar...

Economic Determinants of Fund Financial Arrangements

Economic Determinants of Fund Financial Arrangements »

Source: Economic Determinants of Fund Financial Arrangements

Volume/Issue: 1994/36

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Julio Santaella , and Malcolm Knight

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

ISBN: 9781451977967

Keywords: exchange rate, probability, equation, equations, real exchange rate

This paper analyses empirically the economic factors that lead to approval of Fund financial arrangements. We account for both the economic variables that induce a country to seek an arrangement with the Fund (&#x0...

How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers?

How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers? »

Source: How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers?

Volume/Issue: 2011/52

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ethan Ilzetzki , Enrique Mendoza , and Carlos Végh Gramont

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2011

ISBN: 9781455218028

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fiscal multipliers, government expenditure

We contribute to the intense debate on the real effects of fiscal stimuli by showing that the impact of government expenditure shocks depends crucially on key country characteristics, such as the level of developme...

I Introduction and Summary

I Introduction and Summary »

Source: IMF Conditionality : Experience Under Stand-by and Extended Arrangements, Part I: Key Issues and Findings

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Louis Dicks-Mireaux , Miguel Savastano , Adam Bennett , María Carkovic S. , Mauro Mecagni , James John , and Susan Schadler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 1995

ISBN: 9781557754929

Keywords: inflation, terms of trade, capital inflows, exchange rate, real interest rates

Events of the late 1980s and early 1990s created an unusually high demand for IMF financial resources. The strains in the international economy during the 1980s—a sharp reduction in spontaneous external fina...

I Overview

I Overview »

Source: Quasi-Fiscal Operations of Public Financial Institutions

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): George Mackenzie , and Peter Stella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 1996

ISBN: 9781557755834

Keywords: central bank, inflation, monetary fund, central banks, exchange rate

Central banks and other public financial institutions (PFIs) play an important role as agents of fiscal policy in many IMF member countries. Their activities in this guise can affect the overall public secto...

II Basic Issues

II Basic Issues »

Source: Quasi-Fiscal Operations of Public Financial Institutions

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): George Mackenzie , and Peter Stella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 1996

ISBN: 9781557755834

Keywords: central bank, inflation, monetary fund, central banks, exchange rate

In many countries, some of the activities in which central banks and PFIs engage, as well as some of the regulatory requirements of central banks, can be said to take on a fiscal character. These quasi-fisca...

II The Setting for Adjustment: Initial Positions and Global Environment

II The Setting for Adjustment: Initial Positions and Global Environment »

Source: IMF Conditionality : Experience Under Stand-by and Extended Arrangements, Part I: Key Issues and Findings

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Louis Dicks-Mireaux , Miguel Savastano , Adam Bennett , María Carkovic S. , Mauro Mecagni , James John , and Susan Schadler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 1995

ISBN: 9781557754929

Keywords: inflation, terms of trade, capital inflows, exchange rate, real interest rates

Almost without exception, the initial positions of the countries under review were dire. Most were suffering the effects of long-standing institutional and structural weaknesses, fiscal excesses, and deficie...