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Indonesia
			: Selected Issues

Indonesia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2016/82

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513584409.002

ISBN: 9781513584409

Keywords: banks, bank, loans, deposits, liquid assets

This paper focuses on the selected issues of the Indonesian economy: (1) banking sector condition in India, (2) corporate vulnerabilities, (3) analysis of macrofinancial linkages in Indonesia, and (4) infrastructu...

Institutionalizing Countercyclical Investment

Institutionalizing Countercyclical Investment »

Volume/Issue: 2016/38

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bradley Jones

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513512495.001

ISBN: 9781513512495

Keywords: Asset Allocation, Asset Owners, Momentum, Risk Management, asset, investment, risk, returns, Asset Pricing, Government Policy and Regulation

Do portfolio shifts by the world’s largest asset owners respond procyclically to past returns, or countercyclically to valuations? And if countercyclical investment (with both market-stabilizing and return-generati...

International Sovereign Bonds by Emerging Markets and Developing Economies
			: Drivers of Issuance and Spreads

International Sovereign Bonds by Emerging Markets and Developing Economies : Drivers of Issuance and Spreads »

Volume/Issue: 2015/275

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrea Presbitero , Dhaneshwar Ghura , Olumuyiwa Adedeji , and Lamin Njie

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 December 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513581729.001

ISBN: 9781513581729

Keywords: Sovereign bond issuance, bond spreads, developing countries, bonds, sovereign bonds, bond, markets, sovereign bond, International Lending and Debt Problems, Asset Pricing

What determines the ability of low-income developing countries to issue bonds in international capital and what explains the spreads on these bonds? This paper examines these questions using a dataset that includes...

Assessing Default Risks for Chinese Firms
			: A Lost Cause?

Assessing Default Risks for Chinese Firms : A Lost Cause? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/140

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Law , and Shaun Roache

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 June 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513597584.001

ISBN: 9781513597584

Keywords: default probabilities, equity, market, Asset Pricing, Financial Forecasting and Simulation,

Assessing default risks for Chinese firms is hard. Standard measures of risk using market indicators may be unreliable because of implicit guarantees, the large role played by less-informed investors, and other mar...

Sub-National Government's Risk Premia
			: Does Fiscal Performance Matter?

Sub-National Government's Risk Premia : Does Fiscal Performance Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/117

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sergio Sola , and Geremia Palomba

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513511061.001

ISBN: 9781513511061

Keywords: Sub-national governments, market, markets, debt, bonds, primary market, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Asset Pricing, General,

This paper examines the determinants of sub-national governments risk premia using secondary market data for U.S., Canada, Australia and Germany. It finds that, as for central governments, fiscal fundamentals matte...

On the First-Round Effects of International Food Price Shocks
			: the Role of the Asset Market Structure

On the First-Round Effects of International Food Price Shocks : the Role of the Asset Market Structure »

Volume/Issue: 2015/33

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rafael Portillo , and Luis-Felipe Zanna

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498333092.001

ISBN: 9781498333092

Keywords: Food Price Shocks, First-Round Effects, New-Keynesian Models, Asset Market Structure, food, price, market, prices, inflation, General

We develop a tractable small open-economy model to study the first-round effects of international food price shocks in developing countries. We define first-round effects as changes in headline inflation that, hold...

Asset Bubbles
			: Re-thinking Policy for the Age of Asset Management

Asset Bubbles : Re-thinking Policy for the Age of Asset Management »

Volume/Issue: 2015/27

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bradley Jones

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475576207.001

ISBN: 9781475576207

Keywords: markets, financial markets, balance sheet, returns, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Behavioral Finance: Underlying Principles, Asset Pricing, Government Policy and Regulation,

In distilling a vast literature spanning the rational- irrational divide, this paper offers reflections on why asset bubbles continue to threaten economic stability despite financial markets becoming more informati...

Financial Crises and the Composition of Cross-Border Lending

Financial Crises and the Composition of Cross-Border Lending »

Volume/Issue: 2014/185

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eugenio Cerutti , Galina Hale , and Camelia Minoiu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484361443.001

ISBN: 9781484361443

Keywords: syndicated loans, global financial crisis, BIS international banking statistics, Dealogic Loan Analytics, banking, bank assets, financial crisis, bank capital, General, Globalization: Finance,

We examine the composition and drivers of cross-border bank lending between 1995 and 2012, distinguishing between syndicated and non-syndicated loans. We show that on-balance sheet syndicated loan exposures account...

First-Time International Bond Issuance-New Opportunities and Emerging Risks

First-Time International Bond Issuance-New Opportunities and Emerging Risks »

Volume/Issue: 2014/127

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anastasia Guscina , Guilherme Pedras , and Gabriel Presciuttini

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498390699.001

ISBN: 9781498390699

Keywords: Bond market, LICs, frontier markets, bond, international bond, bond issuance, global bond, International Lending and Debt Problems, Asset Pricing,

International bond issuance by debut issuers has risen in recent years. The uptick was a result of both demand and supply factors. The search for yield and demand for portfolio diversification have resulted in dema...

Cross-Country Experience in Reducing Net Foreign Liabilities
			: Lessons for New Zealand

Cross-Country Experience in Reducing Net Foreign Liabilities : Lessons for New Zealand »

Volume/Issue: 2014/62

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ding Ding , Werner Schule , and Yan Sun

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475516388.001

ISBN: 9781475516388

Keywords: Net foreign liabilities, Current account balance, Public savings, foreign liabilities, foreign assets, international investment, financial integration, external indebtedness, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

This paper studies the dynamics of net foreign liabilities across a number of countries. Our historical analysis suggests that an orderly reduction in a country's net foreign liabilities has mostly occurred when th...

Asia's Stock Markets
			: Are There Crouching Tigers and Hidden Dragons?

Asia's Stock Markets : Are There Crouching Tigers and Hidden Dragons? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/37

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Fabian Lipinsky , and Li Lian Ong

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 February 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484320143.001

ISBN: 9781484320143

Keywords: arbitrage pricing theory, Asian financial crisis, fundamentals, global financial crisis, idiosyncratic factors, integration, IOSCO, securities regulation, stock market, stock pricing

Stock markets play a key role in corporate financing in Asia. However, despite their increasing importance in terms of size and cross-border investment activity, the region's markets are reputed to be more 'idiosyn...

The External Balance Assessment (EBA) Methodology

The External Balance Assessment (EBA) Methodology »

Volume/Issue: 2013/272

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Steven Phillips , Luis Catão , Luca Ricci , Rudolfs Bems , Mitali Das , Julian Di Giovanni , Filiz Unsal , Marola Castillo , Jungjin Lee , Jair Rodriguez , and Mauricio Vargas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484346686.001

ISBN: 9781484346686

Keywords: net foreign assets, current accounts, private credit, reserve currency, current account balances, Open Economy Macroeconomics, International Policy Coordination and Transmission,

The External Balance Assessment (EBA) methodology has been developed by the IMF's Research Department as a successor to the CGER methodology for assessing current accounts and exchange rates in a multilaterally con...

Pressure or Prudence? Tales of Market Pressure and Fiscal Adjustment

Pressure or Prudence? Tales of Market Pressure and Fiscal Adjustment »

Volume/Issue: 2013/170

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Salvatore Dell'Erba , Todd Mattina , and Agustin Roitman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 July 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484374054.001

ISBN: 9781484374054

Keywords: market pressure, macro-fiscal fundamentals, advanced economies, fiscal consolidations, fiscal adjustments, Asset Pricing, General,

We study whether multiyear fiscal adjustment plans in 17 OECD countries during 1980-2011 have been associated with market pressure. We find that only a third (34 percent) of the consolidations occurred under market...

Financial Crises  Explanations, Types, and Implications

Financial Crises Explanations, Types, and Implications »

Volume/Issue: 2013/28

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Stijn Claessens , and Ayhan Kose

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475561005.001

ISBN: 9781475561005

Keywords: debt crises, defaults, policy implications, financial restructuring, asset booms, crises prediction, International Business Cycles, General, crises prediction.,

This paper reviews the literature on financial crises focusing on three specific aspects. First, what are the main factors explaining financial crises? Since many theories on the sources of financial crises highlig...

Sovereign Risk and Asset and Liability Management
			: Conceptual Issues

Sovereign Risk and Asset and Liability Management : Conceptual Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2012/241

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Udaibir Das , Yinqiu Lu , Michael Papaioannou , and Iva Petrova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475511833.001

ISBN: 9781475511833

Keywords: Sovereign asset and liability management, sovereign balance sheet, reserve management, central bank, government debt, currency composition, external debt, International Lending and Debt Problems, Portfolio Choice, Asset Pricing

Country practices towards managing financial risks on a sovereign balance sheet continue to evolve. Each crisis period, and its legacy on sovereign balance sheets, reaffirms the need for strengthening financial ris...

Measuring Systemic Liquidity Risk and the Cost of Liquidity Insurance

Measuring Systemic Liquidity Risk and the Cost of Liquidity Insurance »

Volume/Issue: 2012/194

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tiago Severo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505436.001

ISBN: 9781475505436

Keywords: stock returns, banking, bank assets, insurance premium, bond, Econometric Modeling, General Financial Markets,

I construct a systemic liquidity risk index (SLRI) from data on violations of arbitrage relationships across several asset classes between 2004 and 2010. Then I test whether the equity returns of 53 global banks we...

Optimal Liquidity and Economic Stability

Optimal Liquidity and Economic Stability »

Volume/Issue: 2012/135

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Linghui Han , and Il Lee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475503883.001

ISBN: 9781475503883

Keywords: financial assets, financial sector, monetary aggregate, Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data, Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit: General, Dynamic Panel,

Monetary aggregates are now much less used as policy instruments as identifying the right measure has become difficult and interest rate transmission has worked well in an increasingly complex financial system. In...

People's Republic of China
			: Detailed Assessment Report:  IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

People's Republic of China : Detailed Assessment Report: IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation »

Volume/Issue: 2012/80

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 April 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502985.002

ISBN: 9781475502985

Keywords: securities companies, securities law, stock exchanges, asset management, futures trading

This paper discusses a detailed assessment report on the observance of China's compliance with the International Organization of Securities Commission's objectives and principles of securities regulation. The refor...

Consequences of Asset Shortages in Emerging Markets

Consequences of Asset Shortages in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2012/102

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Patrick Imam , and Jiaqian Chen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502923.001

ISBN: 9781475502923

Keywords: Asset Shortage, Emerging Market, Crisis, Asset Bubble, financial assets, bond, bonds, asset bubbles, Money and Interest Rates: General, Financial Economics: General,

We assess econometrically the impact of asset shortages on economic growth, asset bubbles, the probability of a crisis, and the current account for a group of 41 Emerging markets for 1995-2008. The econometric esti...

Bank Asset Quality in Emerging Markets
			: Determinants and Spillovers

Bank Asset Quality in Emerging Markets : Determinants and Spillovers »

Volume/Issue: 2012/71

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Reinout De Bock , and Alexander Demyanets

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502237.001

ISBN: 9781475502237

Keywords: Macro-financial linkages, Nonperforming loans, Exchange rate, Panel regressions, capital inflows, net capital flows, exchange rates, Bank Asset Quality in Emerging Markets, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, International Finance: General

This paper assesses the vulnerability of emerging markets and their banks to aggregate shocks. We find significant links between banks' asset quality, credit and macroeconomic aggregates. Lower economic growth, an...

An Integrated Framework for Financial Positions and Flowson a From-Whom-To-Whom Basis
			: Concepts, Status, and Prospects

An Integrated Framework for Financial Positions and Flowson a From-Whom-To-Whom Basis : Concepts, Status, and Prospects »

Volume/Issue: 2012/57

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Segismundo Fassler , Manik Shrestha , and Reimund Mink

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463937751.001

ISBN: 9781463937751

Keywords: financial flows, financial accounts, balance sheet approach, financial instruments, central bank, financial assets, financial corporations, monetary fund, Methodology for Collecting, Estimating

The global crisis of 2008 highlighted the need to understand financial interconnectedness among the various sectors of an economy and between them and their counterparties in the rest of the world. However, applica...

How Risky Are Banks' Risk Weighted Assets? Evidence From the Financial Crisis

How Risky Are Banks' Risk Weighted Assets? Evidence From the Financial Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2012/36

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sonali Das , and Amadou Sy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463933791.001

ISBN: 9781463933791

Keywords: crisis, regulation, risk weighted assets, Basel III, banking, return on assets, dummy variables, standard errors, independent variables, Financial Institutions and Services: General

We study how investors account for the riskiness of banks' risk-weighted assets (RWA) by examining the determinants of stock returns and market measures of risk. We find that banks with higher RWA had lower stock r...

Assessing the Risks to the Japanese Government Bond (JGB) Market

Assessing the Risks to the Japanese Government Bond (JGB) Market »

Volume/Issue: 2011/292

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Waikei Lam , and Kiichi Tokuoka

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463927264.001

ISBN: 9781463927264

Keywords: Sovereign Risk, Government yields, Financial Distress, bond, financial assets, financial institutions, bonds

Despite the rise in public debt, Japanese Government Bond (JGB) yields have remained low and stable, supported by steady inflows from the household and corporate sectors, high domestic ownership of JGBs, and safe-h...

Bank of Japan'S Monetary Easing Measures
			: Are they Powerful and Comprehensive?

Bank of Japan'S Monetary Easing Measures : Are they Powerful and Comprehensive? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/264

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Waikei Lam

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463924638.001

ISBN: 9781463924638

Keywords: Monetary and Credit Easing, Quantitative Easing, Large-scale Asset Purchases, financial markets, bonds, corporate bonds, government securities, government bonds, Money And Interest Rates, Monetary Policy

With policy rates near the zero bound, the Bank of Japan (BoJ) has introduced a series of unconventional monetary easing measures since late 2009 in response to lingering deflation and a weakening economy. These me...

Australia
			: Selected Issues

Australia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2011/301

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463921934.002

ISBN: 9781463921934

Keywords: terms of trade, pension, pension wealth, dependency ratio, asset market

This study relates Australian household saving more closely to movements in asset market using event study analysis and econometric analysis. In this study, the policy challenges for Australia from rebalancing in C...

Does G-4 Liquidity Spill Over?

Does G-4 Liquidity Spill Over? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/237

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): L. Psalida , and Tao Sun

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463922559.001

ISBN: 9781463922559

Keywords: liquidity expansion, asset valuations, global liquidity, capital inflows, equity returns, excess liquidity, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit: Other

The resumption of strong capital flows into emerging markets in mid-2009 brought back the debate over whether pull or push factors are the main determinants. This paper, using panel specifications with alternative...

Unforeseen Events Wait Lurking
			: Estimating Policy Spillovers From U.S. to Foreign Asset Prices

Unforeseen Events Wait Lurking : Estimating Policy Spillovers From U.S. to Foreign Asset Prices »

Volume/Issue: 2011/183

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tamim Bayoumi , and Trung Bui

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462309290.001

ISBN: 9781462309290

Keywords: Event studies, policy announcements, interntational asset price transmission, bond yields, bond, foreign bond, equity prices, commodity prices, International Policy Coordination and Transmission, Corporate Finance and Governance: Government Policy and Regulation,

Event studies are used to analyze the impact of U.S. financial, fiscal, and monetary policies from US to foreign asset prices across a range of G20 countries and Switzerland. The initial announcement that the Admin...

Vanuatu
			: 2011 Article IV Consultation:  Staff Report; Debt Sustainability Analysis; and Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion

Vanuatu : 2011 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Debt Sustainability Analysis; and Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion »

Volume/Issue: 2011/120

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455273492.002

ISBN: 9781455273492

Keywords: foreign assets, foreign exchange, foreign currency, net foreign assets, public debt

Vanuatu showed signs of a moderate rebound in economic activity owing to its good macroeconomic fundamentals and a supportive international community. Executive Directors encouraged the authorities to tighten monet...

Causes of Asset Shortages in Emerging Markets

Causes of Asset Shortages in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2011/114

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jiaqian Chen , and Patrick Imam

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455262373.001

ISBN: 9781455262373

Keywords: Asset Shortage, Emerging Market, Capital Market, Regulation, financial assets, interest rates, capital markets, capital account, pension funds, Money and Interest Rates: General

We first illustrate that emerging markets (EMs) face a shortage of financial assets, with financial assets not growing as rapidly as domestic savings. We then estimate the asset shortage in EMs for 1995-2008. We de...

New Shocks and Asset Price Volatility in General Equilibrium

New Shocks and Asset Price Volatility in General Equilibrium »

Volume/Issue: 2011/110

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Rebucci , Akito Matsumoto , Pietro Cova , and Massimiliano Pisani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455261390.001

ISBN: 9781455261390

Keywords: New shocks, Asset Price, volatility, news, asset prices, interest rate, International Finance: General, Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance: General,

We study equity price volatility in general equilibrium with news shocks about future productivity and monetary policy. As West (1988) shows, in a partial equilibrium present discounted value model, news about the...

Financial Cycles
			: What? How? When?

Financial Cycles : What? How? When? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/76

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marco Terrones , Ayhan Kose , and Stijn Claessens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455227037.001

ISBN: 9781455227037

Keywords: credit cycles, asset busts, crunches, house prices, financial cycles, financial crises, financial markets, equity markets, International Policy Coordination and Transmission,

This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of financial cycles using a large database covering 21 advanced countries over the period 1960:1-2007:4. Specifically, we analyze cycles in credit, house prices, and equ...

How Do Business and Financial Cycles Interact?

How Do Business and Financial Cycles Interact? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/88

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marco Terrones , Ayhan Kose , and Stijn Claessens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455233168.001

ISBN: 9781455233168

Keywords: Credit crunches, asset busts, booms, recoveries, financial crises., recession, financial cycles, financial crisis,

This paper analyzes the interactions between business and financial cycles using an extensive database of over 200 business and 700 financial cycles in 44 countries for the period 1960:1-2007:4. Our results suggest...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350048.043

ISBN: 9781616350048

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Transforming China
			: Insights from the Japanese Experience of the 1980s

Transforming China : Insights from the Japanese Experience of the 1980s »

Volume/Issue: 2010/284

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Papa N'Diaye

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455210916.001

ISBN: 9781455210916

Keywords: Plaza accord, asset bubble, and growth rebalancing, deposit rates, financial liberalization, domestic demand, financial system, bonds, Saving, Employment

China is poised on the brink of a transition to a service-based economy. The Japanese experience of the 1980s provides several insights about the way to manage such a transition and the downsides to avoid. In parti...

Peaks, Spikes, and Barrels
			: Modeling Sharp Movements in Oil Prices

Peaks, Spikes, and Barrels : Modeling Sharp Movements in Oil Prices »

Volume/Issue: 2010/186

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Malika Pant , Martin Mühleisen , and Alun Thomas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455202201.001

ISBN: 9781455202201

Keywords: oil price, consumption demand, asset demand, speculation, oil prices, opec, oil imports, oil supply, crude oil, Prices

Global oil markets were roiled by sharp price swings in 2008, and economists are still divided over the reasons for the unusual volatility. Those emphasizing fundamentals point to inelastic supply and demand curves...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068629.043

ISBN: 9781589068629

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Public Debt Sustainability and Management in a Compound Option Framework

Public Debt Sustainability and Management in a Compound Option Framework »

Volume/Issue: 2010/2

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jorge Chan-Lau , and Andre Santos

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451961676.001

ISBN: 9781451961676

Keywords: Asset-liability management, default risk, probabilities, probability, public debt management,

This paper introduces the Asset and Liability Management (ALM) compound option model. The model builds on the observation that the public sector net worth in a multi-period setting corresponds to the value of an op...

Governance and Fund Management in the Chinese Pension System

Governance and Fund Management in the Chinese Pension System »

Volume/Issue: 2009/246

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yu-Wei Hu , Gregorio Impavido , and Xiaohong Li

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873931.001

ISBN: 9781451873931

Keywords: Public pensions, Fund Management, Governance, pension, social security, asset managers, pension funds, pension system, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation, Corporate Finance and Governance: Government Policy and Regulation

The Chinese pension system is highly fragmented and decentralized, with governance standards, pension fund management practices, their regulation and supervision varying considerably both across the funded componen...

Australian Bank and Corporate Sector Vulnerabilities
			: An International Perspective

Australian Bank and Corporate Sector Vulnerabilities : An International Perspective »

Volume/Issue: 2009/223

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elöd Takáts , and Patrizia Tumbarello

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873702.001

ISBN: 9781451873702

Keywords: contingent claim analysis, bank asset quality, capital adequacy, capital adequacy ratio, banking, probability of default,

This paper focuses on how the exposure to the corporate sector may impact the health of the Australian banking system. It also compares Australian banks with their international peers. Finally, it investigates bank...

External Balance in Low Income Countries

External Balance in Low Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2009/221

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lone Engbo Christiansen , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873689.001

ISBN: 9781451873689

Keywords: real exchange rate, net foreign assets, exchange rate, capital account liberalization, International Lending and Debt Problems,

This paper offers a coherent empirical analysis of the determinants of the real exchange rate, the current account, and the net foreign assets position in low income countries. The paper focuses on indicators speci...

New Zealand Bank Vulnerabilities in International Perspective

New Zealand Bank Vulnerabilities in International Perspective »

Volume/Issue: 2009/224

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rodrigo Cubero , and Ray Brooks

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873719.001

ISBN: 9781451873719

Keywords: bank funding, bank asset quality, mortgages, mortgage, banking, probability of default, bank capital,

The global financial crisis is creating stress on banking systems across the world through funding and asset quality shocks. This paper combines different stress scenarios, as well as cross-country analysis, to ass...

Lao People's Democratic Republic
			: Statistical Appendix

Lao People's Democratic Republic : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2009/285

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451822656.002

ISBN: 9781451822656

Keywords: foreign currency, net foreign assets, foreign assets

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Accounting discretion of banks during a financial crisis

Accounting discretion of banks during a financial crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2009/207

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Luc Laeven , and Harry Huizinga

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873542.001

ISBN: 9781451873542

Keywords: Key bank regulation, fair value accounting, corporate disclosure, real estate, real estate loans, tier 1 capital, bank assets, real estate loan,

This paper shows that banks use accounting discretion to overstate the value of distressed assets. Banks' balance sheets overvalue real estate-related assets compared to the market value of these assets, especially...

Broad Money Demand and Asset Substitution in China

Broad Money Demand and Asset Substitution in China »

Volume/Issue: 2009/131

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ge Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872781.001

ISBN: 9781451872781

Keywords: asset substitution, exchange rate, interest rate, equation, statistics, cointegration, inflation,

Recent changes to China's financial system, in particular ongoing interest rate liberalization, gradual movement toward a more flexible exchange rate regime, and rapid development of capital markets, have changed s...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2008

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067554.043

ISBN: 9781589067554

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, debt, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Lao People's Democratic Republic
			: Statistical Appendix

Lao People's Democratic Republic : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2008/340

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 October 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451822595.002

ISBN: 9781451822595

Keywords: foreign currency, net foreign assets, foreign assets, onlending, foreign investment

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Singapore
			: 2008 Article IV Consultation:  Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Singapore

Singapore : 2008 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Singapore »

Volume/Issue: 2008/280

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 August 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451834277.002

ISBN: 9781451834277

Keywords: exchange rate, current account, foreign assets

This 2008 Article IV Consultation highlights that spillovers from the global slowdown and lingering turbulence in international financial markets have been propagated to Singapore mostly through the trade channel....

Financial Integration and Risk-Adjusted Growth Opportunities

Financial Integration and Risk-Adjusted Growth Opportunities »

Volume/Issue: 2008/126

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Iryna Ivaschenko , and Gianni De Nicolo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451869866.001

ISBN: 9781451869866

Keywords: growth opportunities, openness, financial development, financial globalization, european financial integration, foreign assets, financial deepening,

This paper documents the evolution of measures of financial integration for major advanced and emerging markets economies, assesses whether advances in integration have had a significant positive impact on countrie...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2007

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2007 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 February 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066588.043

ISBN: 9781589066588

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

India
			: Asset Prices and the Macroeconomy

India : Asset Prices and the Macroeconomy »

Volume/Issue: 2007/221

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Catriona Purfield

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867855.001

ISBN: 9781451867855

Keywords: wealth effects, real estate, stock market, commercial real estate, asset markets, financial assets,

This paper examines rising asset prices in India. For the most part, asset prices in India reflect structural factors but the risk of a correction cannot be ruled out. However, at this juncture monetary policy may...

Politically Optimal Fiscal Policy

Politically Optimal Fiscal Policy »

Volume/Issue: 2007/68

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Irina Yakadina , and Michael Kumhof

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866322.001

ISBN: 9781451866322

Keywords: Optimal Fiscal Policy, Incomplete Asset Markets, Government Debt Bias, taxation, government spending, equation, equations, Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: Other,

Why do governments issue large amounts of debt? In what sense and for whom is such a policy optimal? We show that twisting the optimal taxation paradigm produces very reasonable predictions for debt and real intere...

Role of Debt Maturity Structureon Firm Fixed Assets During Sudden Stop Episodes
			: Evidence From Thailand

Role of Debt Maturity Structureon Firm Fixed Assets During Sudden Stop Episodes : Evidence From Thailand »

Volume/Issue: 2007/11

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hanan Morsy , Maria Pia Iannariello , and Akiko Terada-Hagiwara

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865752.001

ISBN: 9781451865752

Keywords: Firm fixed asset, Short-term debt maturity structure, Asia financial crisis, fixed assets, debt maturity, short-term debt, debt obligations, current account, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Corporate Finance And Governance,

This paper studies the detrimental effect of sudden stops on the growth of Thai firms' fixed assets. We focus on the fixed assets adjustment that firms undertake at times of financial constraints. We derive our res...

Financial Integration in Asia
			: Estimating the Risk-Sharing Gains for Australia and Other Nations

Financial Integration in Asia : Estimating the Risk-Sharing Gains for Australia and Other Nations »

Volume/Issue: 2006/267

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Benoît Mercereau

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865271.001

ISBN: 9781451865271

Keywords: Risk-sharing, international diversification, financial integration, foreign assets, recession, international economic order, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration,

Holding foreign assets reduces the volatility of a country's income by allowing countries to share risk. Yet, financial integration is limited in Asia. This paper estimates how much Australia and other countries in...

Tonga
			: Statistical Appendix

Tonga : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2006/242

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 June 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451837476.002

ISBN: 9781451837476

Keywords: foreign assets, reserve bank, net foreign assets, external debt, foreign liabilities, Consumer price indexe,

The statistical data on real gross domestic product, agricultural products, indicators of economic activity, consumer price index, population and labor market of Tonga has been detailed. The data on central governm...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2005

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2005 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064621.043

ISBN: 9781589064621

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, loans, financial derivatives, financial assets, financial corporations, interest, benefits, local governments, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Dollars, Debt, and Deficits
			: Sixty Years After Bretton Woods

Dollars, Debt, and Deficits : Sixty Years After Bretton Woods »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064539.072

ISBN: 9781589064539

Keywords: Deficit financing, Budget deficits, exchange rate, public debt, foreign assets, current account, foreign liabilities

This book examines the challenges facing the international monetary and financial system, as well as the future role of the Bretton Woods institutions in addressing those challenges. The volume is based on the proc...

Insurance Companies in Emerging Markets

Insurance Companies in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2005/88

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Janet Kong , and Manmohan Singh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861075.001

ISBN: 9781451861075

Keywords: asset allocation, investments, life insurers, life insurance, risk management, General Financial Markets: Government Policy and Regulation, International Finance Forecasting and Simulation,

This paper focuses on asset allocation decisions of life insurance companies in emerging markets. Mature market insurers allocate only a small fraction of their assets to emerging markets because of regulatory cons...

Financial Integration, Growth, and Volatility

Financial Integration, Growth, and Volatility »

Volume/Issue: 2005/67

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anne Epaulard , and Aude Pommeret

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860863.001

ISBN: 9781451860863

Keywords: Risk-sharing, Endogenous Growth, Stochastic Growth, global financial markets, financial markets, foreign assets, General Aggregative Models: Neoclassical, International Factor Movements and International Business: General, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration, Economic Growth of Open Economies

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the welfare gains from financial integration for developing and emerging market economies. To do so, we build a stochastic endogenous growth model for a small open economy that...

Transparency in Central Bank Financial Statement Disclosures

Transparency in Central Bank Financial Statement Disclosures »

Volume/Issue: 2005/80

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kenneth Sullivan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860993.001

ISBN: 9781451860993

Keywords: central bank, disclosure, IAS, balance sheet, interest, financial assets, Financial Institutions and Services: Other,

The IMF's development of the Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies and the introduction of safeguards assessments have increased emphasis on transparency of the disclosures made...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2004

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063846.043

ISBN: 9781589063846

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, loans, financial derivatives, financial assets, financial corporations, interest, benefits, local governments, salaries

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.),...

Insurance Value of International Reserves
			: An Option Pricing Approach

Insurance Value of International Reserves : An Option Pricing Approach »

Volume/Issue: 2004/175

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858785.001

ISBN: 9781451858785

Keywords: option, underlying asset, international reserves, reserve holding, external debt, currency crises, reserve holdings, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

A quantitative framework is developed to bring forward the insurance motive of holding international reserves. The insurance value of reserves is quantified as the market price of an equivalent option that provides...

Pension Funds and Emerging Markets

Pension Funds and Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2004/181

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jorge Chan-Lau

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859225.001

ISBN: 9781451859225

Keywords: asset allocation, regulation, pension, pension fund, pension fund managers, pension fund assets,

This paper focuses on the investment behavior of pension funds in developed and emerging market countries. First, it analyzes the main determinants of the emerging market asset allocation of pension funds in develo...

The Role of Mature Market Mutual Funds in Emerging Markets
			: Myth or Mayhem?

The Role of Mature Market Mutual Funds in Emerging Markets : Myth or Mayhem? »

Volume/Issue: 2004/133

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Amadou Sy , and Li Ong

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855524.001

ISBN: 9781451855524

Keywords: asset allocation, crossover investors, dedicated investors, mature markets, investors, bonds, bond, bond funds, Assest allocation,

The expansion of the global mutual funds industry has been characterized by growth in mature as well as emerging markets. This has clearly contributed to the development of local securities markets in emerging mark...

Financial Integration
			: A New Methodology and An Illustration

Financial Integration : A New Methodology and An Illustration »

Volume/Issue: 2004/110

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrew Rose , and Robert Flood

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853377.001

ISBN: 9781451853377

Keywords: risk-free, rate, intertemporal, asset, market, expected, price, stock, conditional, nasdaq

This paper develops a simple methodology to test for asset integration, and applies it within and between American stock markets. Our technique relies on estimating and comparing expected risk-free rates across ass...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2003

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2003 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 April 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062696.043

ISBN: 9781589062696

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, loans, financial derivatives, financial assets, social security, financial corporations, interest, benefits, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Republic of Palau
			: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Republic of Palau : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2004/86

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451831504.002

ISBN: 9781451831504

Keywords: current expenditure, financial assets, government expenditure, capital expenditure, government spending

The Republic of Palau (Palau) has always been heavily dependent on external assistance. The availability of steady grants has allowed Palau to maintain a sizable public sector. A number of issues are considered in...

Building Strong Banks Through Surveillance and Resolution

Building Strong Banks Through Surveillance and Resolution »

Series: Books

Author(s): Charles Enoch , Dewitt Marston , and Michael Taylor

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060432.071

ISBN: 9781589060432

Keywords: banking, loans, restructuring, debt, asset management

Since the mid-1990s, economic observers have kept a watchful eye on the financial sector because of its potential to spark economic crises. Banks in particular have come under close scrutiny. Building Strong Banks...

Mauritius
			: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Mauritius : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2002/144

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 July 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451827781.002

ISBN: 9781451827781

Keywords: interest, interest rates, financial assets, balance sheet, treasury bill

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes the labor market of Mauritius. It highlights that the high level of youth unemployment in Mauritius points to deficiencies in education and training. The...

Lao People's Democratic Republic
			: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Lao People's Democratic Republic : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2002/61

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451822434.002

ISBN: 9781451822434

Keywords: foreign currency, inflation, foreign assets, net foreign assets, monetary policy

This Selected Issues paper examines the main causes for the surge in dollarization in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). It explores various strategies that may be adopted to maintain low inflation and...

External Wealth, the Trade Balance, and the Real Exchange Rate

External Wealth, the Trade Balance, and the Real Exchange Rate »

Volume/Issue: 2002/51

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philip Lane , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451847123.001

ISBN: 9781451847123

Keywords: foreign assets, net foreign assets, foreign asset, net foreign asset, net foreign asset position, Open Economy Macroeconomics, trade balance, real exchange rate,

This paper examines the link between the net foreign asset position, the trade balance and the real exchange rate. In particular, it decomposes the impact of a country's net foreign asset position ("external wealth...

Thailand
			: Selected Issues

Thailand : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2001/147

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451836776.002

ISBN: 9781451836776

Keywords: debt, restructuring, debt restructuring, asset management, public debt

Four years since the onset of the financial crisis, Thailand's economic recovery remains fragile and is now threatened by a sharp slowdown in external demand. Bank and corporate sector restructuring policies have f...

Long-Term Capital Movements

Long-Term Capital Movements »

Volume/Issue: 2001/107

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philip Lane , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451852981.001

ISBN: 9781451852981

Keywords: Net foreign assets, demographics, foreign asset, foreign assets, net foreign asset, foreign asset position, International Lending and Debt Problems,

International financial integration allows countries to become net creditors or net debtors with respect to the rest of the world. In this paper, we show that a small set of fundamentals-shifts in relative output l...

The Asset Allocation of Emerging Market Mutual Funds

The Asset Allocation of Emerging Market Mutual Funds »

Volume/Issue: 2001/111

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Piti Disyatat , and R. Gelos

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853476.001

ISBN: 9781451853476

Keywords: asset allocation, portfolio choice, contagion, statistic, risk aversion, optimization, correlation, covariance,

Benchmark following and portfolio rebalancing effects have often been cited when trying to explain international financial contagion phenomena. Using a dataset containing the country allocation of individual dedica...

Vanuatu
			: Recent Economic Developments

Vanuatu : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 2000/129

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 October 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451840483.002

ISBN: 9781451840483

Keywords: foreign currency, commercial banks, net foreign assets, foreign direct investment, direct investment

Vanuatu has maintained macroeconomic stability, but real GDP growth slowed despite the receipt of considerable foreign assistance and the implementation of structural reforms under the Comprehensive Reform Program...

Vanuatu
			: Recent Economic Developments

Vanuatu : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 2000/129

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 October 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451840520.002

ISBN: 9781451840520

Keywords: foreign currency, commercial banks, net foreign assets, foreign direct investment, direct investment

A variety of shocks have affected Vanuatu's recent economic performance. The government approved the Comprehensive Reform Program (CRP) developed with the support of the Asian Development Bank (AsDB). The IIIrd pha...

Financial Sector Crisis and Restructuring
			: Lessons from Asia:  Lessons from Asia

Financial Sector Crisis and Restructuring : Lessons from Asia: Lessons from Asia »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Leslie Teo , Charles Enoch , Carl-Johan Lindgren , Tomás Baliño , Anne Gulde , and Marc Quintyn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758712.084

ISBN: 9781557758712

Keywords: restructuring, loans, banking, debt, asset management

This paper reviews the policy responses of Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand to the Asian crisis that erupted in 1997 and compares the actions of these three countries with those of Malaysia and the Philippines, which...

Recapitalizing Banks with Public Funds
			: Selected Issues

Recapitalizing Banks with Public Funds : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 1999/139

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856026.001

ISBN: 9781451856026

Keywords: asset management companies, asset valuation, bank restructuring agencies, Tier 1 capital, Tier 2 capital, restructuring, debt, loans, recapitalization, debt restructuring

Recapitalizing banks in a systemic crisis is a complex medium-term process that requires significant government intervention and careful management at both the strategic and individual bank levels. This paper highl...

The External Wealth of Nations
			: Measures of Foreign Assets and Liabilities for Industrial and Developing Countries

The External Wealth of Nations : Measures of Foreign Assets and Liabilities for Industrial and Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 1999/115

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gian Milesi-Ferretti , and Philip Lane

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853841.001

ISBN: 9781451853841

Keywords: foreign assets, external debt, foreign direct investment, equity flows, debt, liabilities, fdi

Capital flows are closely monitored, but surprisingly little is known about the stocks of external assets and liabilities held by countries, especially in the developing world. This paper constructs estimates of fo...

Vietnam
			: Statistical Appendix

Vietnam : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 1999/56

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 July 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451840230.002

ISBN: 9781451840230

Keywords: foreign currency, foreign direct investment, direct investment, commercial banks, foreign assets, Viet Nam,

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Brunei Darussalam
			: Recent Economic Developments

Brunei Darussalam : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 1999/19

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 April 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451806151.002

ISBN: 9781451806151

Keywords: oil and gas, commercial banks, investment income, tax revenue, net foreign assets

This paper describes economic developments in Brunei Darussalam during 1997-98. In 1997, the economy grew by 4 percent led by strong construction and services activities, while average inflation declined to less th...

Nepal
			: Recent Economic Developments

Nepal : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 1999/18

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 April 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829877.002

ISBN: 9781451829877

Keywords: balance of payments, net foreign assets, commercial banks, tax revenue, interest payments

This paper reviews economic developments in Nepal during 1996-98. During 1997-98, the authorities maintained broad macroeconomic stability and there was an improvement in the external position. However, real GDP gr...

Malaysia
			: Selected Issues

Malaysia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 1998/114

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451828290.002

ISBN: 9781451828290

Keywords: expenditure, commercial banks, total expenditure, net foreign assets, direct investment

This Selected Issues paper undertakes a brief examination of poverty trends in Malaysia since the early 1970s and the policies that may have contributed to its reduction. The paper presents trends in poverty, and d...

Thailand
			: Statistical Appendix

Thailand : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 1998/119

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451836752.002

ISBN: 9781451836752

Keywords: commercial banks, direct investment, external financing, net foreign assets, balance of payments

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Vanuatu
			: Statistical Appendix

Vanuatu : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 1998/106

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 October 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451840476.002

ISBN: 9781451840476

Keywords: foreign currency, net foreign assets, commercial banks, foreign assets, direct investment

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Market-Based Policy Instruments for Systemic Bank Restructuring

Market-Based Policy Instruments for Systemic Bank Restructuring »

Volume/Issue: 1998/113

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tamim Bayoumi , and Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944235.001

ISBN: 9781451944235

Keywords: Financial Sector Policy, Banking Crisis, Restructuring, Central Banking, banking, deposit insurance, bank restructuring, asset management, systemic bank restructuring

Since the early 1980s, well over 100 countries have experienced systemic bank insolvencies. An important innovation among the resulting policies for reestablishing bank soundness has been the reliance on market-bas...

Liquid Asset Ratios and Financial Sector Reform

Liquid Asset Ratios and Financial Sector Reform »

Volume/Issue: 1997/144

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anne Gulde

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856408.001

ISBN: 9781451856408

Keywords: Banks, Banking Regulation, Central Bank Policy, liquid asset, banking, reserve requirement, financial sector, bonds

As a monetary, selective credit, and government debt-management instrument, a liquid asset ratio is generally inefficient and may introduce serious distortions. However, it may play a limited role as a prudential i...

Vanuatu
			: Recent Economic Developments

Vanuatu : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 1996/75

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 August 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451840469.002

ISBN: 9781451840469

Keywords: foreign currency, net foreign assets, commercial banks, foreign assets, direct investment

This paper describes economic developments in Vanuatu during the first half of the 1990s. In 1995, economic growth recovered to more than 3 percent, following the slowdown in the previous year, owing to increased a...

Japan
			: Recent Economic Developments

Japan : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 1995/115

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451820416.002

ISBN: 9781451820416

Keywords: financial assets, bond, bonds, financial institutions, domestic demand

This paper reviews economic developments in Japan during the 1990s. The paper focuses on the weak recovery that began in 1994, against the background of the long and deep recession from mid-1991 to late 1993. Outpu...

Net Foreign Assets and International Adjustment
			: The United States, Japan, and Germany

Net Foreign Assets and International Adjustment : The United States, Japan, and Germany »

Volume/Issue: 1993/33

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jocelyn Horne , Paul Masson , and Jeroen Kremers

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451979244.001

ISBN: 9781451979244

Keywords: net foreign assets, foreign assets, foreign asset, net foreign asset, foreign asset positions

This paper examines external adjustment in the United States, Japan and Germany from the perspective of net foreign asset positions. It asks two questions: What are, in the long run, the determinants of net foreign...

Wealth. Financial Liberalization, and the Demand for Money in Japan

Wealth. Financial Liberalization, and the Demand for Money in Japan »

Volume/Issue: 1989/85

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 October 1989

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451954180.001

ISBN: 9781451954180

Keywords: money demand, money market, demand for money, financial liberalization, financial assets

This paper presents estimates of a demand function for broad money in Japan. The function explains both secular trends in broad money during the 1970s and 1980s and the sharp decline in the income velocity of broad...

External Imbalances and Fiscal Policy in the Group of Three Countries
			: The Role of Stock-Flow Dynamics

External Imbalances and Fiscal Policy in the Group of Three Countries : The Role of Stock-Flow Dynamics »

Volume/Issue: 1989/81

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 1989

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451954937.001

ISBN: 9781451954937

Keywords: foreign assets, net foreign assets, foreign asset, net foreign asset

This paper discusses recent empirical research on the interplay between fiscal policies and external imbalances in the G3 countries, focusing on the stock-flow dynamics of public and foreign deficits and debt accum...

Net Foreign Assets and International Adjustment in the United States, Japan and the Federal Republic of Germany

Net Foreign Assets and International Adjustment in the United States, Japan and the Federal Republic of Germany »

Volume/Issue: 1989/22

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 March 1989

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451921144.001

ISBN: 9781451921144

Keywords: foreign asset, foreign assets, net foreign assets, net foreign asset, foreign asset positions

This paper examines external adjustment in the U.S., Japan and Germany from the perspective of net foreign asset positions. It asks two questions: What are, in the long run, the determinants of net foreign asset eq...