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Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive
			: A review of opportunities and barriers

Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive : A review of opportunities and barriers »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Anja Bundgaard , Carl Dalhammar , Erika Machacek , Kristina Overgaard Zacho , and Arne Remmen

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327206

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, European Union, Resource Efficiency, Ecodesign Directive, Energy Efficiency, Product Durability, Legal Standards

The European Union has initiated a number of initiatives to improve resource efficiency in Europe. The Ecodesign Directive is one of the policy instruments that could aid the transition towards a more resource effi...

Balancing protection and prosecution in anti-trafficking policies
			: A comparative analysis of reflection periods and related temporary residence permits for victims of trafficking in the Nordic countries, Belgium and Italy

Balancing protection and prosecution in anti-trafficking policies : A comparative analysis of reflection periods and related temporary residence permits for victims of trafficking in the Nordic countries, Belgium and Italy »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Anette Brunovskis

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289324236

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Trafficking, European Countries, Reflection Period, Victim Protection, Traffickers, Nordic Countries

When victims of trafficking are identified in a country of destination, they are often in a situation marked by lack of clarity. In response to this, most European countries have a so-called reflection period for v...

Baltic Investment Programme
			:  - Twenty Years of Joint Nordic Financial and Technical Assistance to the Three Baltic Countries

Baltic Investment Programme : - Twenty Years of Joint Nordic Financial and Technical Assistance to the Three Baltic Countries »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Ib Katznelson

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289326414

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Baltic Investment Programme, European Union, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, National Investment Banks, Commercial Financial Sector, Economic Growth

The Baltic Investment Programme was first launched for the period 1992-1995. It was then extended for another period, 1995-1998. In 1998 it was decided to let the programme come to a gradual end in 2003, the year b...

Building Nordic Strength Through More Open R&D Funding - Study 3
			: The Next Step in NORIA

Building Nordic Strength Through More Open R&D Funding - Study 3 : The Next Step in NORIA »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Erik Arnold , Annelie Eriksson , Sven Faugert , and Tommy Jansson

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2006

ISBN: 9789289313926

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Research and Innovation, Economic Competitiveness, Small Nordic Nations, Nordic Research and Innovation Area (NORIA), ERA (European Research Area), Nordic Research Board (NordForsk)

Research and innovation are the primary corner stones in efforts to strengthen economic competitiveness in an ever more globalised economy. This study states that the small Nordic nations face fierce challenges wit...

Cost of Late Action - the Case of PCB

Cost of Late Action - the Case of PCB »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2004

ISBN: 9789289310789

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Estimate Environmental Costs, Information on Costs, Environmental Benefits to Society, European Community, European Commission to Introduce a System, New Legislation

The purpose of this study is to estimate environmental costs for the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the European Union. The result of the estimate is that these costs in the EU of 25 members, will be at...

Cross-Country Report on Spillovers

Cross-Country Report on Spillovers »

Source: Cross-Country Report on Spillovers : Selected Issues

Volume/Issue: 2016/212

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 July 2016

ISBN: 9781498343046

Keywords: Spillovers, Monetary policy, European Central Bank, Emerging markets, Developed countries, Cross country analysis, Economic models, Selected Issues Papers, Poland, Sweden

This paper identifies policies to increase productivity in the East, reduce regional income disparities, and promote overall income convergence. Achieving this objective will require improving educational attainmen...

Eurosclerosis or Financial Collapse

Eurosclerosis or Financial Collapse »

Source: Eurosclerosis or Financial Collapse : Why Did Swedish Incomes Fall Behind?

Volume/Issue: 2005/29

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Valerie Cerra , and Sweta Saxena

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2005

ISBN: 9781451860481

Keywords: Welfare State, Output Loss, unemployment, economic growth, per capita income, business cycle, Economywide Country Studies: Europe, Economic Growth of Open Economies, Structure, Scope

Sweden represents an archetypal welfare state economy, with extensive government safety nets. Some scholars have attributed a decline in its per capita income ranking since 1970 to "eurosclerosis" or sluggish growt...

Existing Default Values and Recommendations for Exposure Assessment
			: A Nordic Exposure Group Project 2011

Existing Default Values and Recommendations for Exposure Assessment : A Nordic Exposure Group Project 2011 »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2012

ISBN: 9789289323161

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Default Values, Exposure Assessments, Representative Defaults, European Sources, Consumer Products, Evaluate Exposure Factors

Default values are often used in exposure assessments e.g. in modelling because of lack of actually measured data. The quality of the exposure assessment outcome is therefore heavily dependent on the validity and r...

Final report for the NORAP Priority Setting Workshop
			: 9 - 10 June 2009 Sigtuna, Sweden

Final report for the NORAP Priority Setting Workshop : 9 - 10 June 2009 Sigtuna, Sweden »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2010

ISBN: 9789289320849

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, REACH and CLP Regulations, Nordic Workshop, Nordic Risk Assessment Project, Swedish Chemicals Agency, European Chemicals Agency, Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC)

This report is an outcome of the Nordic workshop on priority setting within the context of the new working fields under the REACH and CLP regulations. The workshop was arranged by the Nordic Risk Assessment Project...

How to Improve the Financial Oversight of Public Corporations

How to Improve the Financial Oversight of Public Corporations »

Volume: 16

Series: Fiscal Affairs Department How-To Notes

Author(s): Richard Allen , and Miguel Alves

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475551983.061

ISBN: 9781475551983

Keywords: Capitalization, Public corporations, Europe, Asia and Pacific, Australia, South Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sweden, state-owned enterprises, risk

Many studies have highlighted how failures of public corporations (otherwise known as state-owned enterprises) can result in huge economic and fiscal costs. To contain the risks associated with these costs, an effe...