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China's High Savings: Drivers, Prospects, and Policies1

China's High Savings: Drivers, Prospects, and Policies1 »

Source: China's High Savings: Drivers, Prospects, and Policies

Volume/Issue: 2018/277

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Longmei Zhang , Ray Brooks , Ding Ding , Haiyan Ding , Hui He , Jing Lu , and Rui Mano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 December 2018

ISBN: 9781484388778

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, China, People's Republic of, China; Savings; Demographic Changes; Social Safety Net; Inequality; Housing; Projections, China, Savings, Demographic Changes, Social Safety Net, Inequality; Housing, Projections,

China's high national savings rate-one of the highest in the world-is at the heart of its external/internal imbalances. High savings finance elevated investment when held domestically, or lead to large external imb...

Fiscal Challenges of Population Aging in Brazil

Fiscal Challenges of Population Aging in Brazil »

Source: Fiscal Challenges of Population Aging in Brazil

Volume/Issue: 2017/99

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alfredo Cuevas , Izabela Karpowicz , Carlos Mulas-Granados , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 April 2017

ISBN: 9781475595550

Keywords: Brazil, Pensions, Government expenditures and health, Aging, Western Hemisphere, Health, fiscal consolidation, Social Security and Public Pensions, Demographic Trends and Forecasts

In recent decades, population has been aging fast in Brazil while old age pensions and healthrelated spending have increased. As the population ages, the spending trend threaten to reach unsustainable levels absent...

China's High Savings: Drivers, Prospects, and Policies

China's High Savings: Drivers, Prospects, and Policies »

Volume/Issue: 2018/277

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Longmei Zhang , Ray Brooks , Ding Ding , Haiyan Ding , Hui He , Jing Lu , and Rui Mano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 December 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484388778.001

ISBN: 9781484388778

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, China, People's Republic of, China; Savings; Demographic Changes; Social Safety Net; Inequality; Housing; Projections, China, Savings, Demographic Changes, Social Safety Net, Inequality; Housing, Projections,

China's high national savings rate-one of the highest in the world-is at the heart of its external/internal imbalances. High savings finance elevated investment when held domestically, or lead to large external imb...

Fiscal Challenges of Population Aging in Brazil

Fiscal Challenges of Population Aging in Brazil »

Volume/Issue: 2017/99

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alfredo Cuevas , Izabela Karpowicz , Carlos Mulas-Granados , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 April 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475595550.001

ISBN: 9781475595550

Keywords: Brazil, Pensions, Government expenditures and health, Aging, Western Hemisphere, Health, fiscal consolidation, Social Security and Public Pensions, Demographic Trends and Forecasts

In recent decades, population has been aging fast in Brazil while old age pensions and healthrelated spending have increased. As the population ages, the spending trend threaten to reach unsustainable levels absent...

Long-Run Biological Interest Rate for Pay-As-You-Go Pensions in Advanced and Developing Countries

Long-Run Biological Interest Rate for Pay-As-You-Go Pensions in Advanced and Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2017/98

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Masahiro Nozaki

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 April 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475595826.001

ISBN: 9781475595826

Keywords: Pay-as-you-go pension, internal rate of return, pension reform, Social Security and Public Pensions, Demographic Trends and Forecasts, Social Security and Public Pensions, Demographic Trends and Forecasts

How much of an internal rate of return would a sustainable pay-as-you-go pension system offer current and future generations equally? The answer is the sum of the Long-Run Biological Interest Rates (LBIR), the real...

Long-Run Biological Interest Rate for Pay-As-You-Go Pensions in Advanced and Developing Countries1

Long-Run Biological Interest Rate for Pay-As-You-Go Pensions in Advanced and Developing Countries1 »

Source: Long-Run Biological Interest Rate for Pay-As-You-Go Pensions in Advanced and Developing Countries

Volume/Issue: 2017/98

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Masahiro Nozaki

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 April 2017

ISBN: 9781475595826

Keywords: Pay-as-you-go pension, internal rate of return, pension reform, Social Security and Public Pensions, Demographic Trends and Forecasts, Social Security and Public Pensions, Demographic Trends and Forecasts

How much of an internal rate of return would a sustainable pay-as-you-go pension system offer current and future generations equally? The answer is the sum of the Long-Run Biological Interest Rates (LBIR), the real...