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Collateral in Loan Classification and Provisioning

Collateral in Loan Classification and Provisioning »

Volume/Issue: 2002/122

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): In Song

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854503.001

ISBN: 9781451854503

Keywords: Financial Regulation, collateral, banking, General Financial Markets: Government Policy and Regulation, Financial Institutions And Services,

Adequate loan classification practices are an essential part of a sound and effective credit risk-management process in a bank. Failure to identify deterioration in credit quality in a timely manner can aggravate a...

Corruption and Military Spending

Corruption and Military Spending »

Volume/Issue: 2000/23

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451844030.001

ISBN: 9781451844030

Keywords: military spending, panel data, military, arms, military equipment, military procurement

Anecdotal evidence relates corruption with high levels of military spending. This paper tests empirically whether such a relationship exists. The empirical analysis is based on data from four different sources for...

Costly Collateral and the Public Supply of Liquidity

Costly Collateral and the Public Supply of Liquidity »

Volume/Issue: 2000/125

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philip Schellekens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854817.001

ISBN: 9781451854817

Keywords: Debt Finance, Collateral, Credit Constraints, Asset Price Volatility, entrepreneur, entrepreneurs

This paper addresses two complications arising from the use of collateral requirements in debt contracts between wealth-constrained entrepreneurs and banks. First, costly asset liquidation is found to enhance the s...

Counterparty Risk, Impacton Collateral Flows and Role for Central Counterparties

Counterparty Risk, Impacton Collateral Flows and Role for Central Counterparties »

Volume/Issue: 2009/173

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): James Aitken , and Manmohan Singh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873207.001

ISBN: 9781451873207

Keywords: Counterparty Risk, Large Complex Financial Institutions, OTC derivatives, Collateral Flow, Central Counterparties, collateral, derivative, derivatives market, hedge, financial system,

Counterparty risk in the United States stemming from exposures to OTC derivatives payables (after netting) is now concentrated in five banks?Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan, Bank of America, Morgan Stanley and Citi. This n...

Deleveraging After Lehman
			: Evidence From Reduced Rehypothecation

Deleveraging After Lehman : Evidence From Reduced Rehypothecation »

Volume/Issue: 2009/42

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): James Aitken , and Manmohan Singh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871906.001

ISBN: 9781451871906

Keywords: Rehypothecation, Lehman&;amp;#x2019;s bankruptcy, Counterparty risk, collateral, hedge, financial system, hedge fund, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, Corporation and Securities Law

Rehypothecation is the practice that allows collateral posted by, say, a hedge fund to their prime broker to be used again as collateral by that prime broker for its own funding. In the United Kingdom, such use of...

Emerging Markets Crisis
			: An Asset Markets Perspective

Emerging Markets Crisis : An Asset Markets Perspective »

Volume/Issue: 1999/129

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Arvind Krishnamurthy , and Ricardo Caballero

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855098.001

ISBN: 9781451855098

Keywords: Capital flows, fire sales, financial constraints, contractual and corporate governance problems, balance sheets, wasted collateral, domestic and foreign spreads, excessive leverage, collateral underprovision, real depreciation

The entire difference between a mild downturn and a devastating crisis is the occurrence of sharp fire sales of domestic assets and possibly foreign exchange and the ensuing collapse in the balance sheets of both t...

Fire Sales and the Financial Accelerator

Fire Sales and the Financial Accelerator »

Volume/Issue: 2010/141

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Woon Choi , and David Cook

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455201242.001

ISBN: 9781455201242

Keywords: fire sales, financial accelerator, endogenous recovery rate, financial shock, liquidity spiral, collateral, inflation, monetary policy, inflation targeting, real interest rates

During periods of financial turmoil, increases in risk lead to higher default, foreclosure, and fire sales. This paper introduces a costly liquidation process for foreclosed collateral and endogenous recovery rates...

How Resilient Are Military Expenditures in the Context of Fund-Supported Programs?

How Resilient Are Military Expenditures in the Context of Fund-Supported Programs? »

Volume/Issue: 1988/48

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972139.001

ISBN: 9781451972139

Keywords: military, expenditure, military spending, military expenditures, government expenditure

This paper examines how military spending has been affected by Fund-supported programs. It looks at the changes in military expenditure as a share of gross domestic product (MIL/GDP) and of total expenditure (MIL/E...

Institutionalized Corruption and the Kleptocratic State

Institutionalized Corruption and the Kleptocratic State »

Volume/Issue: 1999/91

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Harm , and Joshua Charap

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451851496.001

ISBN: 9781451851496

Keywords: dictatorship, anarchy, governance, combat, organized crime, gang members, military, extortion

This paper argues that corruption patterns are endogenous to political structures. Thus, corruption can be systemic and planned rather than decentralized and coincidental. In an economic system without law or prope...

Interenterprise Arrears in Post-Communist Economies

Interenterprise Arrears in Post-Communist Economies »

Volume/Issue: 1994/43

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jacek Rostowski

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975109.001

ISBN: 9781451975109

Keywords: ied, debtors, creditors, interest

The reasons for the growth of interenterprise debt are analyzed. It is suggested that it results mainly from the appearance of normal trade credit in a liberalized economy, and when a monetary squeeze is part of a...