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II Overview of Reforms

II Overview of Reforms »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

In late 1978 China announced a program to reshape its economy. Over the subsequent ten years, economic reform involved the relaxation of direct planning controls, the decentralization of economic decision ma...

II Recent Developments

II Recent Developments »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

The year 1982 was one of turmoil in financial markets. Banking problems, as measured, say, by the tiering of interest rates, were not as severe as in 1974–75, but it is nonetheless likely that substantial ch...

III Financial Consequences of International Banking Problems

III Financial Consequences of International Banking Problems »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

The immediate consequences of problems in international banking would be financial—the disruption of payments mechanisms and the breakdown of financial intermediation. If unchecked, these could quickly impin...

III Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Transition

III Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Transition »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

Since market-oriented reforms were set in motion in 1978, the nature and role of macroeconomic policy instruments, particularly monetary and fiscal policy, have been transformed pari passu with the changes i...

III Population Dynamics in the Seven Major Industrial Countries

III Population Dynamics in the Seven Major Industrial Countries »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

A significant change is projected in the demographic structure of the seven major industrial countries over the next several decades. Through the year 2000 much of this change can be predicted with reasonabl...

Honduras's Growth Performance During 1970-1997

Honduras's Growth Performance During 1970-1997 »

Volume/Issue: 1999/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): V. Juan-Ramon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974874.003

ISBN: 9781451974874

Keywords: Economic growth, Investment, Honduras, Honduras, Productivity, growth, input productivity, human capital, investment composition, education

For more than three decades, Honduras’s average annual growth in real per capita GDP has been almost zero and highly uneven, even though its total investment-to-GDP ratio has been relatively large. This pape...

Budget Classification

Budget Classification »

Volume: 09

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Dominique Bouley , Davina Jacobs , and Jean-Luc Hélis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462343478.005

ISBN: 9781462343478

Keywords: Governance, budget, budget classification, chart of accounts, government finance statistics, poverty-reducing expenditure, program budgeting, public financial management, revenues, budget classification system

This technical note analyzes the importance of a budget classification system. It highlights that budget classification is one of the fundamental building blocks of a sound budget management system, as it determine...

IV Pensions

IV Pensions »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

The largest single item of social expenditure in most of the seven major industrial countries is pensions; Canada and Japan are the only exceptions (Chart 3 and Table 15). Of the three major government socia...

IV Possible Sources of Banking Problems

IV Possible Sources of Banking Problems »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

As in all financial intermediation, risk is an inherent feature of international banking. This section describes the risks involved and discusses some of the threats these risks pose to the continuity of int...

V Medical Care

V Medical Care »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

In the past two and a half decades, the growth in government expenditure on health and medical care has been explosive, more than doubling as a ratio to GDP in the seven major industrial countries. An increa...