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Allocating Business Income between Capital and Labor under a Dual Income Tax

Allocating Business Income between Capital and Labor under a Dual Income Tax »

Source: Allocating Business Income between Capital and Labor under a Dual Income Tax : The Case of Iceland

Volume/Issue: 2012/263

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Thornton Matheson , and Pall Kollbeins

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2012

ISBN: 9781475515411

Keywords: Dual income tax, small business taxation, wage, wages, labor income, minimum wage, tax rate, Dual income txa, Business Taxes and Subsidies,

In contrast to most Scandinavian countries, Iceland allocates the income of closely held businesses (CHBs) between capital and labor based on administratively set minimum wages rather than an imputed return to book...

Alternative Fiscal Rules for Norway

Alternative Fiscal Rules for Norway »

Source: Alternative Fiscal Rules for Norway

Volume/Issue: 2007/241

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Leigh , and Etibar Jafarov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2007

ISBN: 9781451868043

Keywords: pension, pension spending, fiscal position, retirement

This paper considers long-term fiscal policy options in Norway, the world's fifth largest oil exporter, in light of the substantial expected increase in pension outlays. It compares the current fiscal rule, which t...

Alternative Social Security Systems in CIS Countries

Alternative Social Security Systems in CIS Countries »

Source: Alternative Social Security Systems in CIS Countries

Volume/Issue: 1993/8

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ehtisham Ahmad , and Jean-Luc Schneider

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 1993

ISBN: 9781451842470

Keywords: pensions, pension, contribution rates, contribution rate

In the USSR in 1990, social security reforms led to the imposition of a uniform system of benefits in a large and demographically diverse country. This required inter-regional transfers, which are now no longer fea...

Annual Meetings seminar program: Development, monetary and financial issues are focus of wide-ranging discussions

Annual Meetings seminar program: Development, monetary and financial issues are focus of wide-ranging discussions »

Source: IMF Survey : Volume 29, Issue 20

Volume/Issue: 29/20

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2000

ISBN: 9781451926651

Keywords: aging, pension, aging population, elderly, social security

In conjunction with its annual Article IV consultation with Japan, IMF staff prepared a background paper (Japan-Selected Issues) on a number of key topics. Two chapters of that paper dealt with the macroeconomic an...

Appendix I. Analytical Framework and Data Sources for Public Pension Projections

Appendix I. Analytical Framework and Data Sources for Public Pension Projections »

Source: Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Sheetal Chand , and Albert Jaeger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756206

Keywords: Aging, pension, public pension, retirement, contribution rates

This appendix describes the model and data sources underlying the projections of public pension finances in the selected industrial countries covered by the study....

Appendix I Pension Arrangements in an Overlapping-Generations Model

Appendix I Pension Arrangements in an Overlapping-Generations Model »

Source: Pension Regimes and Saving

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alfredo Cuevas , George Mackenzie , and Philip Gerson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756404

Keywords: pension, retirement, benefits, pensions, pension plans

This appendix uses an overlapping-generations model to look at the impact of introducing funded and unfunded social security systems, and of replacing an unfunded system with a funded one. The analysis follo...

Appendix II. Bibliographic Notes

Appendix II. Bibliographic Notes »

Source: Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Sheetal Chand , and Albert Jaeger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756206

Keywords: Aging, pension, public pension, retirement, contribution rates

Social Security and Aging Populations Since World War II, pension expenditures in industrial countries have risen sharply (as a percent of GDP), reflecting rising numbers of benefici...

Appendix II Notes on the Empirical Literature on Pensions and Saving

Appendix II Notes on the Empirical Literature on Pensions and Saving »

Source: Pension Regimes and Saving

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alfredo Cuevas , George Mackenzie , and Philip Gerson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756404

Keywords: pension, retirement, benefits, pensions, pension plans

Given the theoretical ambiguity of the precise relationship between pensions and saving, the various statistical techniques that have been used to analyze it, and the diversity in actual pension systems and...

Appendix III Brief Notes on the Pension Regimes of Selected Countries

Appendix III Brief Notes on the Pension Regimes of Selected Countries »

Source: Pension Regimes and Saving

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alfredo Cuevas , George Mackenzie , and Philip Gerson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756404

Keywords: pension, retirement, benefits, pensions, pension plans

Private Plans in Selected Industrial Countries Japan Private retirement plans in Japan are either lump-sum severance payment plans or pension plans tha...

Are Europe's Social Security Finances Compatible with EMU?

Are Europe's Social Security Finances Compatible with EMU? »

Source: Are Europe's Social Security Finances Compatible with EMU?

Volume/Issue: 1997/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): George Kopits

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1997

ISBN: 9781451974034

Keywords: European Economic and Monetary Union, Europe, Social security, unemployment, unemployment benefits, survivors ? pensions, payroll tax

Pursuant to the Treaty of Maastricht, members of the European Union (EU) intend to participate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), in part through convergence toward specified limits on the overall deficit an...