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Appendix I. Analytical Framework and Data Sources for Public Pension Projections

Appendix I. Analytical Framework and Data Sources for Public Pension Projections »

Source: Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Sheetal Chand , and Albert Jaeger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756206

Keywords: Aging, pension, public pension, retirement, contribution rates

This appendix describes the model and data sources underlying the projections of public pension finances in the selected industrial countries covered by the study....

Appendix I: The ECU

Appendix I: The ECU »

Source: The Role of the SDR in the International Monetary System

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Juanita Roushdy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 March 1987

ISBN: 9780939934812

Keywords: monetary fund, gold, monetary system, international monetary system, exchange rate

Unit of Value Purposes Units of account other than national currencies have been used for many years in the activities of the European Communities (EC)...

Appendix II. Bibliographic Notes

Appendix II. Bibliographic Notes »

Source: Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Sheetal Chand , and Albert Jaeger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756206

Keywords: Aging, pension, public pension, retirement, contribution rates

Social Security and Aging Populations Since World War II, pension expenditures in industrial countries have risen sharply (as a percent of GDP), reflecting rising numbers of benefici...

Appendix II Relevance of Institutional Constraints

Appendix II Relevance of Institutional Constraints »

Source: Limiting Central Bank Credit to the Government : Theory and Practice

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Carlo Cottarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1993

ISBN: 9781557753588

Keywords: central bank, current account, monetary policy, inflation, central banks

The issue of whether institutional constraints, including those on central bank credit, can be effective in preserving central bank independence has always been highly controversial...

Appendix II: The SDR

Appendix II: The SDR »

Source: The Role of the SDR in the International Monetary System

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Juanita Roushdy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 March 1987

ISBN: 9780939934812

Keywords: monetary fund, gold, monetary system, international monetary system, exchange rate

Unit of Value Purposes The SDR at present serves as the unit of account for the Fund and is the unit in which all Fund transactions and operations and...

Appendix III Central Bank Credit to the Government in 57 Countries

Appendix III Central Bank Credit to the Government in 57 Countries »

Source: Limiting Central Bank Credit to the Government : Theory and Practice

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Carlo Cottarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1993

ISBN: 9781557753588

Keywords: central bank, current account, monetary policy, inflation, central banks

This appendix presents some factual information on how formal constraints on central bank credit to the government are regulated in a sample of 57 countries. The sample includes all...

APPENDIX 1. Ireland: How New Administrative Powers Helped Close Bogus Nonresident Accounts

APPENDIX 1. Ireland: How New Administrative Powers Helped Close Bogus Nonresident Accounts »

Source: Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

In 1998, a media exposé on widespread use of bogus foreign addresses by Irish bank depositors (to avoid withholding taxes on interest and reporting to the Irish Revenue) led to a major high-profile parliamen...

Assessing Fiscal Sustainability in Theory and Practice1

Assessing Fiscal Sustainability in Theory and Practice1 »

Source: Assessing Fiscal Sustainability in Theory and Practice

Volume/Issue: 2000/81

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nigel Chalk , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2000

ISBN: 9781451850352

Keywords: Government deficits and debt, present value budget constraint, sustainability indicators, fiscal sustainability, debt ratio, budget constraint, primary deficit

The main purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of approaches to assessing fiscal sustainability. It summarizes the general analytical background, focusing on the present value budget constraint, which is...

Bank Risk-Taking and Competition Revisited

Bank Risk-Taking and Competition Revisited »

Source: Bank Risk-Taking and Competition Revisited

Volume/Issue: 2003/114

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gianni De Nicolo , and John Boyd

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2003

ISBN: 9781451853810

Keywords: bank risk shifting, banking, deposit insurance, bank risk, bank markets, Bank risk-shifting,

This study reinvestigates the theoretical relationship between competition in banking and banks' exposure to risk of failure. There is a large existing literature that concludes that when banks are confronted with...

The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices

The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , Peter Wickham , Mohsin Khan , and Carmen Reinhart

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754127.084

ISBN: 9781557754127

Keywords: commodity prices, export earnings, commodity exports, non-oil commodity, export taxes

This paper analyzes global commodity trends and concludes that the marked decline in real commodity prices of the past decade should be regarded as largely permanent and irreversible. The authors contend that the a...