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South Africa
			: Selected Issues

South Africa : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2016/218

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475568615.002

ISBN: 9781475568615

Keywords: Economic growth, China, External shocks, Commodity prices, Exports, Capital flows, Capital outflows, Spillovers, Financial sector, Trade integration

This paper describes South Africa's economic development and challenges. South Africa has made considerable economic and social progress over the past two decades, but faces substantial challenges. Global transitio...

Measure up
			: A Better Way to Calculate GDP

Measure up : A Better Way to Calculate GDP »

Volume/Issue: 2017/2

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Thomas Alexander , Claudia Dziobek , Marco Marini , Eric Metreau , and Michael Stanger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 February 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475572605.006

ISBN: 9781475572605

Keywords: GDP at constant prices, GDP deflator, G20 Data Gaps Initiative, single and double deflation, China, India

To derive real GDP, the System of National Accounts 2008 (2008 SNA) recommends a technique called double deflation. Some countries use single deflation techniques, which fail to capture important relative price cha...

A Tale of Transition
			: An Empirical Analysis of Economic Inequality in Urban China, 1986-2009

A Tale of Transition : An Empirical Analysis of Economic Inequality in Urban China, 1986-2009 »

Volume/Issue: 2016/239

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Haiyan Ding , and Hui He

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475560008.001

ISBN: 9781475560008

Keywords: Time series, China, People's Republic of, Consumption distribution, Transition economies, Income distribution, China, Asia and Pacific, Household expenditures, Household survey data, Income inequality

This paper is the first comprehensive empirical study of earnings, income, and consumption inequality in urban China from 1986 to 2009, using unique micro-level data from the Urban Household Survey (UHS). The paper...

Automatic Adjustment Mechanisms in Asian Pension Systems?

Automatic Adjustment Mechanisms in Asian Pension Systems? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/242

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elif Arbatli , Csaba Feher , Jack Ree , Ikuo Saito , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475560336.001

ISBN: 9781475560336

Keywords: Pensions, Pension reforms, Japan, Korea, Republic of, China, People's Republic of, China, Asia and Pacific, Asia, Retirement, Pension System Reform

Automatic adjustment mechanisms (AAMs)-rules ensuring that certain characteristics of a pension system respond to demographic, macroeconomic and financial developments, in a predetermined fashion and without the ne...

China's Bond Market and Global Financial Markets

China's Bond Market and Global Financial Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2018/253

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eugenio Cerutti , and Maurice Obstfeld

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 December 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484377475.001

ISBN: 9781484377475

Keywords: Globalization, Asia and Pacific, China, International financial markets, Bond Market, Market Integration, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration, International Business Cycles

A cross-country comparative analysis shows that there is substantial room for further integration of China into global financial markets, especially in the case of the international bond market. A further successfu...

China's Capacity Reduction Reform and Its Impact on Producer Prices

China's Capacity Reduction Reform and Its Impact on Producer Prices »

Volume/Issue: 2018/216

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Linxi Chen , Ding Ding , and Rui Mano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484375914.001

ISBN: 9781484375914

Keywords: China, Asia and Pacific, capacity reduction, supply-side structural reforms, producer price index, Time-Series Models, Studies of Particular Policy Episodes

In late 2015, the Chinese authorities launched a policy to reduce capacity in the coal and steel industries under the wider effort of Supply-Side Structural Reforms. Around the same time, producer price inflation i...

China's High Savings: Drivers, Prospects, and Policies

China's High Savings: Drivers, Prospects, and Policies »

Volume/Issue: 2018/277

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Longmei Zhang , Ray Brooks , Ding Ding , Haiyan Ding , Hui He , Jing Lu , and Rui Mano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 December 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484388778.001

ISBN: 9781484388778

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, China, People's Republic of, China; Savings; Demographic Changes; Social Safety Net; Inequality; Housing; Projections, China, Savings, Demographic Changes, Social Safety Net, Inequality; Housing, Projections,

China's high national savings rate-one of the highest in the world-is at the heart of its external/internal imbalances. High savings finance elevated investment when held domestically, or lead to large external imb...

China's Impacts on SSA through the Lens of Growth and Exports

China's Impacts on SSA through the Lens of Growth and Exports »

Volume/Issue: 2017/288

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yibin Mu , Chu Wang , and Dong Frank Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335406.001

ISBN: 9781484335406

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Development, Exports, Growth, China Economy, SSA, General, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

The analysis of China's impacts on the 44 SSA countries reveals that: (i) after joining the WTO in 2001, China has started to impact significantly on SSA growth: one-percent increase in China's GDP per capita leads...

China's Local Government Bond Market

China's Local Government Bond Market »

Volume/Issue: 2018/219

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): W. Raphael Lam , and Jingsen Wang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484378410.001

ISBN: 9781484378410

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, China; Local Government; Subnational fiscal balance; bond market, China, Local Government, Subnational fiscal balance, bond market, Other, General, State and Local Borrowing, Government Policy and Regulation

Local governments play a significant role in China's public finance and fiscal operations. The size of local government debt has grown rapidly over the past years, exceeding the stock of sovereign debt in China. Ho...

China's Monetary Policy Communication: Frameworks, Impact, and Recommendations

China's Monetary Policy Communication: Frameworks, Impact, and Recommendations »

Volume/Issue: 2018/244

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Michael McMahon , Alfred Schipke , and Xiang Li

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484385647.001

ISBN: 9781484385647

Keywords: Financial markets, Central banks and their policies, Asia and Pacific, Monetary policy, People’;s Bank of China, Communication, Central Bank, Monetary Policy Transmission, People&;amp;#x2019;s Bank of China, Monetary Policy (Targets

Financial markets are eager for any signal of monetary policy from the People's Bank of China (PBC). The importance of effective monetary policy communication will only increase as China continues to liberalize its...