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High Cost of Industry in Developing Countries—Causes and Remedies

High Cost of Industry in Developing Countries—Causes and Remedies »

Source: Finance & Development, December 1969

Volume/Issue: 6/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1969

ISBN: 9781616352967

Keywords: bank group, export earnings, bank loans, international trade, balance of payments

This paper focuses on telecommunication development in Ethiopia. The paper highlights that there are now over 20,000 telephones in Addis Ababa (in 1969), but the demand for service still exceeds the supply. About 8...

Unification of Discount Rates Used in External Debt Analysis for Low-Income Countries

Unification of Discount Rates Used in External Debt Analysis for Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2013/026

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498341233.007

ISBN: 9781498341233

Keywords: Debt sustainability analysis, Discount rates, Executive Board decisions, External debt, Lapse of time approval, Low-income developing countries, Market interest rates, Discount rate reductions, Interest rates on loans, Interest rates

This paper proposes reforms to the discount rates used by the Bank and the Fund to (a) calculate the present value (PV) of the external debt of low-income countries (LICs) in debt sustainability analyses (DSAs) and...

Modifying the Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT) Cumulative Borrowing Limit

Modifying the Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT) Cumulative Borrowing Limit »

Volume/Issue: 2018/008

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.;International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 February 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498307253.007

ISBN: 9781498307253

Keywords: Poverty reduction, Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust, Credit, Borrowing, Loans, Debt, Reserves adequacy, mobilization, loan, loan agreement

An effort to mobilize SDR 11 billion in additional Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT) loan resources is underway to sustain the Fund's concessional lending operations over the medium term. SDR 9.4 billion in...

Update on the Mobilization of Loan Resources for PRGT Lending, Proposed Amendment to the PRGT Instrument, and Floor for the Six-Month Derived SDR Interest Rate

Update on the Mobilization of Loan Resources for PRGT Lending, Proposed Amendment to the PRGT Instrument, and Floor for the Six-Month Derived SDR Interest Rate »

Volume/Issue: 2016/053

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498345309.007

ISBN: 9781498345309

Keywords: Borrowed resources, Borrowing agreements, Executive Board decisions, Lapse of time approval, Loans, Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust, Resource mobilization, SDR interest rates, Interest rates on loans, Interest rates

A Board-endorsed effort to raise SDR 11 billion in new Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT) loan resources needed to sustain the Fund's concessional lending operations is well underway. Staff is now engaging w...

Principles of Household Debt Restructuring

Principles of Household Debt Restructuring »

Volume/Issue: 2009/15

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Thomas Laryea , and Luc Laeven

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462376773.004

ISBN: 9781462376773

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Credit expansion, Credit risk, Debt restructuring, Debt, Debt sustainability, Bankruptcy, Financial crisis, Financial sector, Intervention

...

Bank Losses, Monetary Policy and Financial Stability-Evidence on the Interplay from Panel Data

Bank Losses, Monetary Policy and Financial Stability-Evidence on the Interplay from Panel Data »

Volume/Issue: 2008/232

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lea Zicchino , and Erlend Nier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870909.001

ISBN: 9781451870909

Keywords: Loan supply, banking, banking crises, bank capital,

We assess the extent to which loan losses affect banks’ provision of credit to companies and households and examine how feedback from losses to a reduction in credit is affected by the monetary policy stance...

The Treatment of Nonperforming Loans in Macroeconomic Statistics

The Treatment of Nonperforming Loans in Macroeconomic Statistics »

Volume/Issue: 2001/209

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Cornelis Gorter , and Adriaan Bloem

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874754.001

ISBN: 9781451874754

Keywords: General statistics, loan accounting, interest, debt, nonperforming loans, creditor, Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data,

This paper seeks to promote discussion on the treatment of nonperforming loans in macroeconomic statistics. After reviewing current recommendations in international statistical manuals and the guidelines provided b...

Modeling with Macro-Financial Linkages
			: Credit and Policy Shocks in Emerging Markets

Modeling with Macro-Financial Linkages : Credit and Policy Shocks in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2009/123

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jaromir Benes , Inci Ötker , and David Vávra

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872705.001

ISBN: 9781451872705

Keywords: macro-financial linkages, modeling, policy analysis, financial frictions, credit growth, credit crunch, bank loans, bank lending, banking, bank credit

This paper develops a stylized, small, open economy macro model that incorporates an explicit and non-trivial role for financial intermediation. It illustrates how such a model could be used for policy analysis in...

Nonperforming Loans and Macrofinancial Vulnerabilities in Advanced Economies

Nonperforming Loans and Macrofinancial Vulnerabilities in Advanced Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2011/161

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mwanza Nkusu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455297740.001

ISBN: 9781455297740

Keywords: macrofinancial linkages, nonperforming loans, business fluctuations, banking, macroeconomic performance, banking crises, macroeconomic variables, banks ? balance sheets, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy,

We analyze the link between nonperforming loans (NPL) and macroeconomic performance using two complementary approaches. First, we investigate the macroeconomic determinants of NPL in panel regressions and confirm t...

Optimal Bank Recovery

Optimal Bank Recovery »

Volume/Issue: 2015/217

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): C. Goodhart , and Miguel Segoviano Basurto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513584263.001

ISBN: 9781513584263

Keywords: Bank Recovery, Metrics for Triggers, Loss Absorption, Probability of Distress, Loan Default, banks, bank, risk, value, systemic risk

Banks' living wills involve both recovery and resolution. Since it may not always be clear when recovery plans or actions should be triggered, there is a role for an objective metric to trigger recovery. We outline...