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II Role of Banks in Developing Countries

II Role of Banks in Developing Countries »

Source: Financial Fragilities in Latin America : The 1980s and 1990s

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Steven Weisbrod , and Liliana Rojas-Suárez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

ISBN: 9781557755025

Keywords: banking, banking system, central bank, foreign exchange, reserve requirements

Financial systems in developing countries are typically dominated by banks: bank deposits constitute the most important form of household savings, and bank loans are the most important source of external fin...

III Direct Instruments

III Direct Instruments »

Source: Instruments of Monetary Management : Issues and Country Experiences

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557755988

Keywords: central bank, reserve requirements, credit, foreign exchange, reserve requirement

...

III Franchise Value of Banks and Resolution of Banking Crises: 1982–90

III Franchise Value of Banks and Resolution of Banking Crises: 1982–90 »

Source: Financial Fragilities in Latin America : The 1980s and 1990s

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Steven Weisbrod , and Liliana Rojas-Suárez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

ISBN: 9781557755025

Keywords: banking, banking system, central bank, foreign exchange, reserve requirements

It is well documented that the challenges faced by policymakers in Latin America following the outbreak of the debt crisis included not only the correction of the countries’ macroeconomic imbalances but also...

III. Scope for Monetary Policy and Lender-of-Last-Resort Support

III. Scope for Monetary Policy and Lender-of-Last-Resort Support »

Source: Currency Board Arrangements : Issues and Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Charles Enoch , and Tomás Baliño

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756688

Keywords: exchange rate, central bank, inflation, foreign exchange, reserve requirements

While large foreign reserve holdings can strengthen a CBA, using them actively for LOLR or monetary operations might be seen as conflicting with its basic principles of limited discretion. It seems more like...

III Toward Crisis Prevention: Precautionary Arrangements

III Toward Crisis Prevention: Precautionary Arrangements »

Source: IMF Support and Crisis Prevention

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Juan Zalduendo , Alun Thomas , Jun Kim , Uma Ramakrishnan , and Bikas Joshi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 May 2008

ISBN: 9781589067097

Keywords: Balance of payments assistance, Emerging markets, Foreign exchange reserves, Fund role, Multilateral surveillance, capital account, crisis prevention, capital account crises, capital account crisis, current account

The discussion in the previous section suggests where balance sheet vulnerabilities might lurk and how they may interact with specific triggers that result in a full-blown crisis. T...

2 Illustrative Practices from the Country Case Studies

2 Illustrative Practices from the Country Case Studies »

Source: Guidelines for Foreign Exchange Reserve Management : Accompanying Document and Case Studies

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2005

ISBN: 9781589062610

Keywords: reserve management, foreign exchange, central bank, exchange reserves, foreign exchange reserves

21. This chapter draws together the practices followed by reserve management entities that have prepared the case studies contained in Part II. The aim is to highlight the different ways in which countries c...

The IMF and the World Bank
			: How Do They Differ?

The IMF and the World Bank : How Do They Differ? »

Series: Other Statistical Electronic Products

Author(s): David Driscoll

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754059.038

ISBN: 9781557754059

Keywords: balance of payments, exchange rate, exchange rates, debt crisis, foreign exchange, domestic currency, balance of payment, central banks, flexible exchange rates, exchange reserves

This paper discusses how the IMF and the World Bank differ from each other. The IMF is small and, unlike the World Bank, has no affiliates or subsidiaries. Most IMF staff members work at headquarters in Washington,...

The IMF and the World Bank: How Do They Differ?

The IMF and the World Bank: How Do They Differ? »

Source: The IMF and the World Bank : How Do They Differ?

Series: Other Statistical Electronic Products

Author(s): David Driscoll

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1995

ISBN: 9781557754059

Keywords: balance of payments, exchange rate, exchange rates, debt crisis, foreign exchange, domestic currency, balance of payment, central banks, flexible exchange rates, exchange reserves

If you have difficulty distinguishing the World Bank from the International Monetary Fund, you are not alone. Most people have only the vaguest idea of what these institutions do, and very few people indeed...

IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics
			: Annual Report 1996

IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics : Annual Report 1996 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 February 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756367.044

ISBN: 9781557756367

Keywords: statistics, survey, balance of payments, current account, statisticians, foreign exchange, portfolio investment, balance of payments data, investment income, foreign exchange reserves

This annual report of the IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics discusses the Committee's activities during 1996 and outlines its future work program....

IMF Executive Board Completes First Review Under the Extended Fund Facility Arrangement for Pakistan and Approves US$553.3 Million Disbursement

IMF Executive Board Completes First Review Under the Extended Fund Facility Arrangement for Pakistan and Approves US$553.3 Million Disbursement »

Source: Pakistan : Staff Report for the First Review Under the Extended Arrangement Under the Extended Fund Facility, Request for Waiver of Nonobservance of a Performance Criterion and Modification of Performance Criteria

Volume/Issue: 2014/1

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 January 2014

ISBN: 9781484339244

Keywords: Banking sector, Debt sustainability analysis, Extended arrangement reviews, Extended Fund Facility, Economic indicators, Fiscal consolidation, Monetary policy, Fiscal reforms, Fiscal policy, Foreign exchange reserves

This paper provides an update on economic and policy developments in Pakistan since the issuance of the IMF staff report on December 11, 2013. Gross official reserves were US$3.4 billion as of December 16, 2013, in...