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II. Latin American and Caribbean Outlook

II. Latin American and Caribbean Outlook »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2008, Western Hemisphere : Grappling with the Global Financial Crisis

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 October 2008

ISBN: 9781589067592

Keywords: inflation, food prices, exchange rate, monetary policy, foreign currency

The regional outlook is being increasingly clouded by the deepening global financial turmoil. Growth is expected to slow markedly as the global slowdown and tightening financial conditions take...

II. Main Developments in Restrictive Exchange and Trade Practices

II. Main Developments in Restrictive Exchange and Trade Practices »

Source: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1987

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 August 1987

ISBN: 9780939934973

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign trade, foreign currencies, exchange rates, direct investment, exchange transactions

This chapter surveys major developments in members’ restrictive practices affecting international trade and financial transactions. These practices take the form either of quantitative restricti...

III. Developments in Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Rates

III. Developments in Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Rates »

Source: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1987

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 August 1987

ISBN: 9780939934973

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign trade, foreign currencies, exchange rates, direct investment, exchange transactions

Fund members are required to notify the Fund of changes in their arrangements for determining their exchange rates, in accordance with members’ obligations under Article IV, Section 2(a), of the Articles of...

III. Keeping Inflation Under Control

III. Keeping Inflation Under Control »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2008, Western Hemisphere : Grappling with the Global Financial Crisis

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 October 2008

ISBN: 9781589067592

Keywords: inflation, food prices, exchange rate, monetary policy, foreign currency

Rising Inflation The recent inflationary episode in Latin America and the Caribbean has been the first real test of the region’s commitment to low inflation, especially for the count...

Exchange Rate Policy and Liability Dollarization
			: An Empirical Study

Exchange Rate Policy and Liability Dollarization : An Empirical Study »

Volume/Issue: 2007/33

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Pelin Berkmen , and Eduardo Cavallo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865974.001

ISBN: 9781451865974

Keywords: exchange rate policy, exchange rate, foreign currency, inflation, nominal exchange rate

The paper identifies the contemporaneous relationship between exchange rate policy and liability dollarization using three different definitions of dollarization. The presence of endogeneity makes the empirical ide...

Foreign Currency Deposits
			: Implications for Macroeconomic Policies

Foreign Currency Deposits : Implications for Macroeconomic Policies »

Volume/Issue: 1991/108

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andréas Georgiou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946352.001

ISBN: 9781451946352

Keywords: inflation, money stock, foreign currency, real money, price level

This paper discusses the relationship between foreign currency deposits and money, and it shows that the indexation of part of the nominal money supply to the exchange rate, as a result of the presence of foreign c...

International Currency Portfolios

International Currency Portfolios »

Volume/Issue: 2009/48

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Michael Kumhof

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871968.001

ISBN: 9781451871968

Keywords: Portfolio balance theory, imperfect asset substitutability, exchange rate, foreign currency, foreign exchange, exchange rate volatility,

This paper develops a theory of international currency portfolios that holds in general equilibrium, and that is therefore not subject to the criticisms directed at the portfolio balance literature of the 1980s. It...

Measurement of Co-Circulation of Currencies

Measurement of Co-Circulation of Currencies »

Volume/Issue: 1995/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Russell Krueger , and Jiming Ha

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451845228.001

ISBN: 9781451845228

Keywords: foreign currency, foreign currencies, inflation, foreign exchange, money stock

“Co-circulation” involves the regular use of two or more currencies within an economy. This paper examines methodologies to measure the extent to which foreign currencies are circulated within an econ...

On the use of Monetary and Macroprudential Policies for Small Open Economies

On the use of Monetary and Macroprudential Policies for Small Open Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2014/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): F. Gulcin Ozkan , and Filiz Unsal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498375429.001

ISBN: 9781498375429

Keywords: Financial instability, macroprudential measures, emerging, inflation, foreign currency, monetary fund, General, Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance,

We explore optimal monetary and macroprudential policy rules for a small open economy. Delegating 'lean against the wind' squarely to macroprudential policy provides a more robust policy mix to shock uncertainty-(i...

The Macroeconomic Effects of Counterpart Funds and the Underlying Foreign Aid

The Macroeconomic Effects of Counterpart Funds and the Underlying Foreign Aid »

Volume/Issue: 1992/47

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Mulder

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846591.001

ISBN: 9781451846591

Keywords: money supply, foreign currency, inflation, money demand, monetary fund

Counterpart funds generated through foreign currency or commodity aid have again become an issue of interest, in view of the substantial buildup of these funds. Contrary to the usual approach a model is developed i...