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Republic of Latvia
			: Ex Post Evaluation of Exceptional Access Under the 2008 Stand-By Arrangement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Latvia

Republic of Latvia : Ex Post Evaluation of Exceptional Access Under the 2008 Stand-By Arrangement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Latvia »

Volume/Issue: 2013/30

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475526677.002

ISBN: 9781475526677

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rate peg, fixed exchange rate, fixed exchange rate regime, real exchange rate

The IMF has approved an exceptional access Stand-By Arrangement for Latvia. The program is part of a coordinated international effort that has improved financial and economic stability. By early 2008, the fast grow...

Republic of Latvia
			: Selected Issues

Republic of Latvia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2004/261

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 August 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451824544.002

ISBN: 9781451824544

Keywords: debt, exchange rate, current account, interest

This Selected Issues paper assesses whether Latvia's strategy to enter ERM2 and adopt the euro is appropriate. The paper examines the possibility of an exchange rate misalignment from various perspectives. It consi...

Russian Federation
			: Selected Issues

Russian Federation : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2007/352

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 October 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451833157.002

ISBN: 9781451833157

Keywords: exchange rate, price inflation, monetary policy

This Selected Issues paper on the Russian Federation underlies inflation persistence and evolution in response to structural shocks. Inflation in Russia has been characterized by a considerable degree of persistenc...

An Institutional Framework for Comparing Emerging Market Currency Boards

An Institutional Framework for Comparing Emerging Market Currency Boards »

Volume/Issue: 2004/180

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marie-Therese Camilleri

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859140.001

ISBN: 9781451859140

Keywords: Precommitment, Credibility, Institutional Design, exchange rate, inflation, central bank, monetary fund,

This paper offers an in-depth review of the institutional arrangements underlying existing currency boards (CBAs) in Argentina (until 2001), Eastern Europe, and Asia. An index of precommitment is derived from an an...

Why Do Countries Peg the Way They Peg? The Determinants of Anchor Currency Choice

Why Do Countries Peg the Way They Peg? The Determinants of Anchor Currency Choice »

Volume/Issue: 2008/132

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nienke Oomes , and Christopher Meissner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451869910.001

ISBN: 9781451869910

Keywords: exchange rate regime, anchor, network externalities, optimal currency area, exchange rate, exchange rate regimes, trade partners,

What determines the currency to which countries peg or "anchor" their exchange rate? Data for over 100 countries between 1980 and 1998 reveal that trade network externalities are a key determinant. This implies tha...

Growth, Nontradables, and Price Convergence in the Baltics

Growth, Nontradables, and Price Convergence in the Baltics »

Volume/Issue: 1995/45

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anthony Richards , and Gunnar Tersman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974317.001

ISBN: 9781451974317

Keywords: price level, exchange rate, inflation, exchange rates, real exchange rate

This paper reviews the recent real exchange rate appreciation observed in the three Baltic countries. Until now, this phenomenon may be viewed primarily as a consequence of the undervalued real exchange rates of th...

Implications of EMU for Exchange Rate Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

Implications of EMU for Exchange Rate Policy in Central and Eastern Europe »

Volume/Issue: 1999/9

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): George Kopits

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451842579.001

ISBN: 9781451842579

Keywords: international monetary arrangements, transition economies, exchange rate, accession countries, nominal exchange rate, exchange rate movements

In view of the requirements of Stage 2 of European Monetary Union (EMU) for accession to the European Union, this paper examines the desirability for, and the ability of, the lead candidates in Central and Eastern...

Introduction of a New National Currency
			: Policy, Institutional, and Technical Issues

Introduction of a New National Currency : Policy, Institutional, and Technical Issues »

Volume/Issue: 1993/49

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hernán Cortés Douglas , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846775.001

ISBN: 9781451846775

Keywords: bank notes, foreign exchange, exchange rate, foreign exchange market, bank note

In the last few years, a number of countries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have become independent or regained their independence. Many have chosen to issue their own currencies and more are likely...

Stabilization in the Baltic Countries
			: A Comparative Analysis

Stabilization in the Baltic Countries : A Comparative Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 1995/44

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tapio Saavalainen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974683.001

ISBN: 9781451974683

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, exchange rate regime, monetary fund

The Baltic countries began their stabilization and reform process in earnest in mid-1992. During the first two and a half years of reform, these countries have made significant progress in macroeconomic stabilizati...

The Estonian Currency Board
			: Its Introduction and Role in the Early Success of Estonia's Transition to a Market Economy

The Estonian Currency Board : Its Introduction and Role in the Early Success of Estonia's Transition to a Market Economy »

Volume/Issue: 2002/96

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andres Sutt , Basil Zavoiceo , and Adalbert Knöbl

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451851922.001

ISBN: 9781451851922

Keywords: currency reform, exchange arrangements, currency board, transition to market economy, exchange rate, monetary policy, foreign exchange, central bank, Studies of Particular Policy Episodes,

This paper reviews the history of the introduction of the Estonian kroon under a currency board arrangement. On June 20, 1992, Estonia became the first country from the former Soviet Union to abandon the Russian ru...