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International Reserve Adequacy in Central America

International Reserve Adequacy in Central America »

Volume/Issue: 2011/144

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kristin Magnussen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455268443.001

ISBN: 9781455268443

Keywords: Foreign reserves, balance of payments crises, financial dollarization, international reserves, external debt, exchange rate, emerging markets, current account, International Finance Forecasting and Simulation, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

Countries' absolute and relative international reserves adequacy has recently attracted considerable attention. The analysis has however concentrated on the largest and most advanced economies. We apply various met...

International Reserve Adequacy in Central America

International Reserve Adequacy in Central America »

Source: International Reserve Adequacy in Central America

Volume/Issue: 2011/144

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kristin Magnussen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2011

ISBN: 9781455268443

Keywords: Foreign reserves, balance of payments crises, financial dollarization, international reserves, external debt, exchange rate, emerging markets, current account, International Finance Forecasting and Simulation, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

Countries' absolute and relative international reserves adequacy has recently attracted considerable attention. The analysis has however concentrated on the largest and most advanced economies. We apply various met...

Issues of Openness and Flexibility for Foreign Exchange Systems*

Issues of Openness and Flexibility for Foreign Exchange Systems* »

Source: Issues of Openness and Flexibility for Foreign Exchange Systems

Volume/Issue: 1989/3

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1989

ISBN: 9781451930559

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rate regimes, exchange rates, exchange rate regime

This paper surveys briefly the main issues for official management of foreign exchange, including the choice of exchange rate regime and exchange and trade restrictive systems. It concludes by identifying the main...

IV Developments Under Floating Exchange Rate Regimes

IV Developments Under Floating Exchange Rate Regimes »

Source: Floating Exchange Rates in Developing Countries : Experience with Auction and Interbank Markets

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Kyong Huh , Benedicte Christensen , Peter Quirk , and Toshihiko Sasaki

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 1987

ISBN: 9780939934898

Keywords: foreign exchange, exchange rate, exchange rates, floating exchange rate, floating exchange rates

Most of the developing countries that have adopted floating exchange rates have at the same time pursued supporting monetary and fiscal policies and have liberalized exchange and trade restrictions. Isolatin...

IV Fiscal Sustainability: A Value-at-Risk Approach

IV Fiscal Sustainability: A Value-at-Risk Approach »

Source: Central America : Global Integration and Regional Cooperation

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Markus Rodlauer , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 July 2005

ISBN: 9781589064461

Keywords: Tax administration, Statistics, exchange rate, exchange rate regimes, exchange rate regime, free trade, trade diversion

Recurring debt problems and high public debt have brought the issue of fiscal sustainability to the foreground in several Central American countries. Although public debt-to-GDP ratios have started to come d...

Parallel Currency Markets in Developing Countries

Parallel Currency Markets in Developing Countries »

Source: Parallel Currency Markets in Developing Countries : Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications

Volume/Issue: 1990/114

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1990

ISBN: 9781451943221

Keywords: foreign exchange, exchange rate, foreign currency, exchange rates, inflation

The paper reviews recent theoretical and empirical developments in the analysis of informal currency markets in developing countries. The basic characteristics of these markets are highlighted, and alternative anal...

The Policy Interest-Rate Pass-Through in Central America

The Policy Interest-Rate Pass-Through in Central America »

Source: The Policy Interest-Rate Pass-Through in Central America

Volume/Issue: 2011/240

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Stephanie Medina Cas , Alejandro Carrion-Menendez , and Florencia Frantischek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2011

ISBN: 9781463923228

Keywords: interest-rate transmission, exchange rate, central bank, exchange rate flexibility, inflation,

Several Central American (CADR) central banks with independent monetary policies have adopted policy interest rates as their main instrument to signal their monetary policy stances, often in the context of adopting...

Shifting Motives

Shifting Motives »

Source: Shifting Motives : Explaining the Buildup in official Reserves in Emerging Markets Since the 1980's

Volume/Issue: 2012/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

ISBN: 9781463933197

Keywords: Quantile Regression, exchange rate, reserve holdings, short-term debt, exchange rate regime, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

Why have emerging market economies (EMEs) been stockpiling international reserves? We find that motives have varied over time?vulnerability to current account shocks was relatively important in the 1980s but, as EM...

The Taxation Implicit in Two-Tiered Exchange Rate Systems

The Taxation Implicit in Two-Tiered Exchange Rate Systems »

Source: The Taxation Implicit in Two-Tiered Exchange Rate Systems

Volume/Issue: 1996/120

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Harry Huizinga

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1996

ISBN: 9781451854220

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, foreign exchange, exchange rate system, exchange rate systems

A two-tiered exchange rate system can be interpreted as a set of separate taxes on money and other financial assets. If the official two-tiered exchange rate system coexists with a black market for foreign exchange...

V Regional Integration and Exchange Rate Arrangements

V Regional Integration and Exchange Rate Arrangements »

Source: Central America : Global Integration and Regional Cooperation

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Markus Rodlauer , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 July 2005

ISBN: 9781589064461

Keywords: Tax administration, Statistics, exchange rate, exchange rate regimes, exchange rate regime, free trade, trade diversion

The Central American–Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) with the United States, combined with increasing integration among the Central American countries, provides an opportunity to reflect o...