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Building a Better Union
			: Incentivizing Structural Reforms in the Euro Area

Building a Better Union : Incentivizing Structural Reforms in the Euro Area »

Volume/Issue: 2015/201

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Angana Banerji , Bergljot Barkbu , James John , Tidiane Kinda , Sergejs Saksonovs , Hanni Schoelermann , and Tao Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513517087.001

ISBN: 9781513517087

Keywords: Structural reform, European economic governance, governance, states, member states, legislation, fiscal, Planning, Coordination, and Reform

The momentum for structural reforms is waning in the euro area at a time when even faster progress is needed to boost productivity and growth, achieve real economic convergence, and improve the resilience of the mo...

Common and Idiosyncratic Components in Real Output
			: Further International Evidence

Common and Idiosyncratic Components in Real Output : Further International Evidence »

Volume/Issue: 2002/229

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francisco Nadal De Simone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875485.001

ISBN: 9781451875485

Keywords: common, European and idiosyncratic components, state-space Models, statistics, correlation, time series, statistic, Model Construction and Estimation, International Policy Coordination and Transmission,

This paper uses the classical (level) definition of business cycles to analyze the characteristics-duration, amplitude, steepness, and cumulative output movements-of the real GDP series of France, Germany, Italy, t...

Countercyclical Fiscal Policy and Gender Employment: Evidence from the G-7 Countries

Countercyclical Fiscal Policy and Gender Employment: Evidence from the G-7 Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2019/4

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bernardin Akitoby , Jiro Honda , and Hiroaki Miyamoto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 January 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484390054.001

ISBN: 9781484390054

Keywords: Italy, Japan, Germany, Europe, Canada, Asia and Pacific, France, United Kingdom, United States, Western Hemisphere

Would countercyclical fiscal policy during recessions improve or worsen the gender employment gap? We give an answer to this question by exploring the state-dependent impact of fiscal spending shocks on employment...

Deconstructing Job Creation

Deconstructing Job Creation »

Volume/Issue: 1999/109

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Pietro Garibaldi , and Paolo Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853193.001

ISBN: 9781451853193

Keywords: job creation, European unemployment, firing costs, employment, jobs, unemployment, employment growth

This paper studies net employment growth across 21 OECD economies in 1980-97, focusing on experiences within the European Union. It finds that sectoral effects can only partially account for differences in job crea...

Identifying the Common Component in International Economic Fluctuations
			: A New Approach

Identifying the Common Component in International Economic Fluctuations : A New Approach »

Volume/Issue: 1999/154

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Robin Lumsdaine , and Eswar Prasad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451857214.001

ISBN: 9781451857214

Keywords: Economic Fluctuations, International and European Business Cycles, Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticty, common, correlations, statistics, correlation, statistic

This paper develops an aggregation procedure using time-varying weights for constructing the common component of international economic fluctuations. The methodology for deriving time-varying weights is based on so...

Productivity in the OECD Countries
			: A Critical Appraisal of the Evidence

Productivity in the OECD Countries : A Critical Appraisal of the Evidence »

Volume/Issue: 2001/89

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): César Calderón

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451851281.001

ISBN: 9781451851281

Keywords: total factor productivity (TFP), cross-country productivity differentials, tfp, r &;amp; d, total factor productivity, growth rates, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General, Economywide Country Studies: Europe,

The failure of the neoclassical growth model to account for differences in output per worker across countries has suggested that these differences should be driven by cross-country differences in total factor produ...

Quantitative Easing and Long-Term Yields in Small Open Economies

Quantitative Easing and Long-Term Yields in Small Open Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2017/212

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Antonio Diez de los Rios , and Maral Shamloo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 September 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484320730.001

ISBN: 9781484320730

Keywords: Europe, Sweden, Switzerland, Central banks and their policies, United Kingdom, United States, Western Hemisphere, Unconventional monetary policy, event study, signaling

We compare the effectiveness of Federal Reserve's asset purchase programs in lowering longterm yields with that of similar programs implemented by the Bank of England, the Swedish Riksbank, and the Swiss National B...

Risks of Stagnation in the Euro Area

Risks of Stagnation in the Euro Area »

Volume/Issue: 2016/9

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Huidan Lin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513586175.001

ISBN: 9781513586175

Keywords: Potential growth, Deleveraging, Downside scenario, debt, investment, unemployment, inflation, Forecasting and Other Model Applications,, Europe, Euro Area

This paper discusses the risks of stagnation over the medium term in the euro area. It examines the consequences of longer-term growth trends that predate the crisis and the progress made in addressing the crisis l...

Sustaining Fixed Exchange Rates
			: A Model with Debt and Institutions

Sustaining Fixed Exchange Rates : A Model with Debt and Institutions »

Volume/Issue: 2001/27

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexander Pitt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451844528.001

ISBN: 9781451844528

Keywords: currency attacks, competition policy, financial supervision, exchange rate, capital inflows, fixed exchange rate, capital stock, capital account liberalization, Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: General, International

Fixed exchange rate regimes have come into disrepute, as their defense has become all but impossible. Yet, while a determined attack on a currency cannot be prevented or, ultimately, withstood, policies can reduce...

The Design of EMU

The Design of EMU »

Volume/Issue: 1997/99

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Begg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451852233.001

ISBN: 9781451852233

Keywords: European Monetary Union, credibility, asymmetric shocks, inflation, monetary policy, central bank, price stability, monetary union

Pursuit of price stability may, but need not, exacerbate output fluctuations. This paper discusses the monetary strategy of the European Central Bank, the intermediate targets that this should entail, and implicati...