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Appendix I. Advantages of Borrowing from the Central Bank

Appendix I. Advantages of Borrowing from the Central Bank »

Source: Limiting Central Bank Credit to the Government : Theory and Practice

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Carlo Cottarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1993

ISBN: 9781557753588

Keywords: central bank, current account, monetary policy, inflation, central banks

This appendix addresses two issues. First, under what conditions borrowing from the central bank is more convenient for the government than borrowing from the market. Second, under...

Appendix II Relevance of Institutional Constraints

Appendix II Relevance of Institutional Constraints »

Source: Limiting Central Bank Credit to the Government : Theory and Practice

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Carlo Cottarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1993

ISBN: 9781557753588

Keywords: central bank, current account, monetary policy, inflation, central banks

The issue of whether institutional constraints, including those on central bank credit, can be effective in preserving central bank independence has always been highly controversial...

Appendix III Central Bank Credit to the Government in 57 Countries

Appendix III Central Bank Credit to the Government in 57 Countries »

Source: Limiting Central Bank Credit to the Government : Theory and Practice

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Carlo Cottarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1993

ISBN: 9781557753588

Keywords: central bank, current account, monetary policy, inflation, central banks

This appendix presents some factual information on how formal constraints on central bank credit to the government are regulated in a sample of 57 countries. The sample includes all...

Assessing the Impact of a Change in the Composition of Public Spending

Assessing the Impact of a Change in the Composition of Public Spending »

Source: Assessing the Impact of a Change in the Composition of Public Spending : A DSGE Approach

Volume/Issue: 2007/168

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ivan Tchakarov , and Roland Straub

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

ISBN: 9781451867329

Keywords: Public consumption, DSGE models, private investment, private capital, competitive markets, budget constraint,

Despite intense calls for safeguarding public investment in Europe, public investment expenditure, when measured in relation to GDP, has steadily fallen in the last three decades, evoking fears that economic activi...

Bankruptcy and Firm Dynamics

Bankruptcy and Firm Dynamics »

Source: Bankruptcy and Firm Dynamics : The Case of the Missing Firms

Volume/Issue: 2010/41

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jose Daniel Rodríguez-Delgado

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2010

ISBN: 9781451962932

Keywords: firm dynamics, financial constraints, bond, probability, equation, bond price, statistics,

Financial frictions have been documented as an important determinant of firm dynamics. In this paper I model bankruptcy procedures, liquidation in particular, as an institutional feature that affects both sides of...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Current Accounts in a Currency Union

Current Accounts in a Currency Union »

Source: Current Accounts in a Currency Union

Volume/Issue: 2009/127

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jörg Decressin , and Emil Stavrev

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2009

ISBN: 9781451872743

Keywords: currency union, EMU, real exchange rate, exchange rate, current accounts, current account balance,

A fear about EMU was that in the absence of national currencies, country-specific shocks would result in greater current account divergences between member states. This paper finds that divergences across euro-area...

Do Fiscal Spillovers Matter?

Do Fiscal Spillovers Matter? »

Source: Do Fiscal Spillovers Matter?

Volume/Issue: 2011/211

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sebastian Weber , and Anna Ivanova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2011

ISBN: 9781463902315

Keywords: coordinated fiscal exit, fiscal changes, fiscal consolidation, fiscal measure, Macroeconomic Aspects Of International Trade And Finance, Macroeconomic - Aspects Of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy, And General Outlook, general Aggregative Models,

The paper assesses the impact of fiscal spillovers on growth in the context of a coordinated exit from crisis management policies. We find that despite potentially sizeable domestic effects from consolidation, aggr...

1. Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence

1. Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2018, Europe : Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 November 2018

ISBN: 9781484375402

Keywords: Europe, Regional Economic Outlook, economic outlook, financial conditions, fiscal policy, monetary policy, emerging Europe, advanced Europe

Activity continued to expand in the first half of 2018, but at a slower-than-expected pace, mainly in advanced Europe. The external environment has become less supportive, with slow...

Euro Area Policies

Euro Area Policies »

Source: Euro Area Policies : 2010 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Member Countries

Volume/Issue: 2010/221

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 July 2010

ISBN: 9781455205790

Keywords: debt, deficit, financial stability, article

The EU crisis was caused by unsustainable policies in some member countries, and has put the spotlight on the deficiency of area-wide mechanisms in disciplining fiscal and structural policies. Despite a strong and...