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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Chapter 3. Caribbean Tourism in the Global Marketplace: Trends, Drivers, and Challenges

Chapter 3. Caribbean Tourism in the Global Marketplace: Trends, Drivers, and Challenges »

Source: Unleashing Growth and Strengthening Resilience in the Caribbean

Series: Books

Author(s): Krishna Srinivasan , Inci Otker , Uma Ramakrishnan , and Trevor Alleyne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2017

ISBN: 9781484315194

Keywords: Financial analysis, International financial markets, International financial cooperation, Financial integration, Economic growth, Inclusive growth, Regional integration, Regional economic integration, Economic integration, Caribbean

Introduction The Caribbean region is highly dependent on tourism. The role of tourism in economic activity in the region increased steadily following the dismantling of the system of...

Chapter 4. Cuba Awakening: Potential Risks and Opportunities

Chapter 4. Cuba Awakening: Potential Risks and Opportunities »

Source: Unleashing Growth and Strengthening Resilience in the Caribbean

Series: Books

Author(s): Krishna Srinivasan , Inci Otker , Uma Ramakrishnan , and Trevor Alleyne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2017

ISBN: 9781484315194

Keywords: Financial analysis, International financial markets, International financial cooperation, Financial integration, Economic growth, Inclusive growth, Regional integration, Regional economic integration, Economic integration, Caribbean

Introduction The growth of Caribbean tourism other than to Cuba is partly a post–Cuban revolution phenomenon. After the Cuban revolution in 1959, U.S. travel restrictions in 1963 clo...

Chapter 8. Debt Restructuring in the Caribbean—The Recent Experience

Chapter 8. Debt Restructuring in the Caribbean—The Recent Experience »

Source: Unleashing Growth and Strengthening Resilience in the Caribbean

Series: Books

Author(s): Krishna Srinivasan , Inci Otker , Uma Ramakrishnan , and Trevor Alleyne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2017

ISBN: 9781484315194

Keywords: Financial analysis, International financial markets, International financial cooperation, Financial integration, Economic growth, Inclusive growth, Regional integration, Regional economic integration, Economic integration, Caribbean

Introduction Many economies in the Caribbean region have been caught in a low growth–high debt trap for decades. Debt has been built up over the years through large fiscal deficits,...

Chapter 14. Emigration and Remittances in the Caribbean

Chapter 14. Emigration and Remittances in the Caribbean »

Source: Unleashing Growth and Strengthening Resilience in the Caribbean

Series: Books

Author(s): Krishna Srinivasan , Inci Otker , Uma Ramakrishnan , and Trevor Alleyne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2017

ISBN: 9781484315194

Keywords: Financial analysis, International financial markets, International financial cooperation, Financial integration, Economic growth, Inclusive growth, Regional integration, Regional economic integration, Economic integration, Caribbean

Introduction Outward migration has been an important phenomenon for countries in the Caribbean, where emigrants account for more than 20 percent of the region’s population, compared...

Chapter 13. Energy Diversification: Macro-Related Challenges

Chapter 13. Energy Diversification: Macro-Related Challenges »

Source: Unleashing Growth and Strengthening Resilience in the Caribbean

Series: Books

Author(s): Krishna Srinivasan , Inci Otker , Uma Ramakrishnan , and Trevor Alleyne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2017

ISBN: 9781484315194

Keywords: Financial analysis, International financial markets, International financial cooperation, Financial integration, Economic growth, Inclusive growth, Regional integration, Regional economic integration, Economic integration, Caribbean

Introduction The cost of electricity in the Caribbean has been persistently high over the past two decades, and has eroded competitiveness. This situation is largely due to serious i...

Chapter 9. Financial Development and Inclusion in the Caribbean

Chapter 9. Financial Development and Inclusion in the Caribbean »

Source: Unleashing Growth and Strengthening Resilience in the Caribbean

Series: Books

Author(s): Krishna Srinivasan , Inci Otker , Uma Ramakrishnan , and Trevor Alleyne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2017

ISBN: 9781484315194

Keywords: Financial analysis, International financial markets, International financial cooperation, Financial integration, Economic growth, Inclusive growth, Regional integration, Regional economic integration, Economic integration, Caribbean

Introduction Financial development, by providing agents with better market access, liquidity, and diversity of instruments, has the potential to unleash new growth sources and help c...

Chapter 10. Financial Interconnectedness in the Caribbean: Challenges for Financial Stability

Chapter 10. Financial Interconnectedness in the Caribbean: Challenges for Financial Stability »

Source: Unleashing Growth and Strengthening Resilience in the Caribbean

Series: Books

Author(s): Krishna Srinivasan , Inci Otker , Uma Ramakrishnan , and Trevor Alleyne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2017

ISBN: 9781484315194

Keywords: Financial analysis, International financial markets, International financial cooperation, Financial integration, Economic growth, Inclusive growth, Regional integration, Regional economic integration, Economic integration, Caribbean

Introduction The global financial crisis of 2008–09 and, in the Caribbean, the crisis stemming from the collapse of Trinidad and Tobago–based CL Financial Group in 2009, raised aware...

Chapter 5. Fiscal Challenges in the Caribbean: Coping with Natural Disasters

Chapter 5. Fiscal Challenges in the Caribbean: Coping with Natural Disasters »

Source: Unleashing Growth and Strengthening Resilience in the Caribbean

Series: Books

Author(s): Krishna Srinivasan , Inci Otker , Uma Ramakrishnan , and Trevor Alleyne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2017

ISBN: 9781484315194

Keywords: Financial analysis, International financial markets, International financial cooperation, Financial integration, Economic growth, Inclusive growth, Regional integration, Regional economic integration, Economic integration, Caribbean

Introduction The Caribbean economies face difficult fiscal challenges, reflected in their high and rising levels of deficits and debt. Large fiscal deficits and debt have been built...

Chapter 12. Loss of Correspondent Banking Relationships in the Caribbean: Trends, Impact, and Policy Options

Chapter 12. Loss of Correspondent Banking Relationships in the Caribbean: Trends, Impact, and Policy Options »

Source: Unleashing Growth and Strengthening Resilience in the Caribbean

Series: Books

Author(s): Krishna Srinivasan , Inci Otker , Uma Ramakrishnan , and Trevor Alleyne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2017

ISBN: 9781484315194

Keywords: Financial analysis, International financial markets, International financial cooperation, Financial integration, Economic growth, Inclusive growth, Regional integration, Regional economic integration, Economic integration, Caribbean

Introduction A correspondent banking relationship (CBR) is a bilateral arrangement between banks, often involving a cross-border relationship in multiple currencies. According to Erb...