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  • Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises and Nonprofit Institutions; Privatization; Contracting Out x
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International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper of Norway presents a cyclical indicator of fiscal policy at the general government level, and provides an updated assessment of the long-term fiscal position based on the future profile of the State Petroleum Fund (SPF). The study focuses on structural changes needed and prospects for privatization of state assets in the telecommunications and petroleum sectors. The paper analyzes the key issues in the Norwegian financial sector, outlines recent financial developments and banking soundness indicators, and also assesses the financial policy framework.
International Monetary Fund
This report describes recent economic developments in the Republic of Estonia. The report highlights that after a cumulative decline of almost 30 percent in 1992–93, real GDP is estimated to have increased in 1994. Data on the composition of GDP by sector reflect the continuing adjustment of Estonia’s economy to fundamental systemic change and the institutional disruption of former production and trade patterns. The importance of the services sector has risen substantially, and is now estimated to account for more than 60 percent of GDP.
International Monetary Fund
With the resumption in growth, the economic recession triggered by the Russian crisis has ended. Additional efforts will be needed to reduce the current account deficit and increase its financing. The IMF staff commend the intention to streamline tax benefits granted to enterprises and to eliminate the benefits that are inconsistent with EU regulations. Financial sector development is imperative for continued external sustainability and economic growth. The government’s ability to implement the privatization program and address the remaining impediments to an enabling business climate is crucial.
Uwe Böwer
State-owned enterprises (SOEs) play an important role in Emerging Europe’s economies, notably in the energy and transport sectors. Based on a new firm-level dataset, this paper reviews the SOE landscape, assesses SOE performance across countries and vis-à-vis private firms, and evaluates recent SOE governance reform experience in 11 Emerging European countries, as well as Sweden as a benchmark. Profitability and efficiency of resource allocation of SOEs lag those of private firms in most sectors, with substantial cross-country variation. Poor SOE performance raises three main risks: large and risky contingent liabilities could stretch public finances; sizeable state ownership of banks coupled with poor governance could threaten financial stability; and negative productivity spillovers could affect the economy at large. SOE governance frameworks are partly weak and should be strengthened along three lines: fleshing out a consistent ownership policy; giving teeth to financial oversight; and making SOE boards more professional.
International Monetary Fund

With the resumption in growth, the economic recession triggered by the Russian crisis has ended. Additional efforts will be needed to reduce the current account deficit and increase its financing. The IMF staff commend the intention to streamline tax benefits granted to enterprises and to eliminate the benefits that are inconsistent with EU regulations. Financial sector development is imperative for continued external sustainability and economic growth. The government’s ability to implement the privatization program and address the remaining impediments to an enabling business climate is crucial.