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Mr. Manmohan Singh
In the aftermath of the Lehman crisis, payouts (i.e., taxpayer bailouts) in various forms were provided by governments to a variety of financial institutions and markets that were outside the regulatory perimeter - the "shadow" banking system. Although recent regulatory proposals attempt to reduce these "puts", we provide examples from non-banking activities within a bank, money market funds, Triparty repo, OTC derivatives market, collateral with central banks, and issuance of floating rate notes etc., that these risks remain. We suggest that a regulatory environment where puts are not ambiguous will likely lower the cost of bail-outs after a crisis.
Dermot Turing and Mr. Manmohan Singh
Changes to the regulatory system introduced after the financial crisis include not only mandatory clearing of OTC derivatives at central counterparties and margining of uncleared derivatives, but also prudential measures, including notably a “Liquidity Coverage Ratio” which obliges firms to set aside high-quality liquid assets (HQLA) as a stopgap against anticipated cash outflows. We examine factors which may affect the demand for HQLA in a severely stressed market following a hypothetical default of a major clearing member. Immediately following a major default, the amount of HQLA demanded by the whole market would spike. We estimate the size of the spike and draw conclusions as to whether the depth of the market is adequate to absorb it.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Simon Johnson, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), was nominated by Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato to become the IMF’s Economic Counsellor and Director of the Research Department. Johnson succeeds Raghuram Rajan, who resigned in January to return to the University of Chicago, and under whom Johnson worked from 2004 to 2006 as an Assistant Director for Research.