This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that Bhutan’s fiscal policy has been anchored by keeping current spending below domestic revenue. Bhutan’s large and volatile trade deficits have been offset by sizable foreign aid flows, resulting in a balance of payments (BOP) surplus and reserve accumulation. The BOP surplus has averaged about 8 percent of GDP over the last few years. Executive Directors have commended the authorities for the strong economic performance anchored by hydropower sector development, and supported by prudent economic management, firm donor support, and political stability.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights Bolivia's substantial economic and social progress, boosted by the commodity boom. Growth has been strong, averaging about 5 percent since 2006, and poverty has fallen by a third. During this time, the authorities built up sizable buffers and largely dedollarized the financial system. Real GDP growth is projected at 3.7 percent in 2016, which is still relatively strong by regional standards. In the medium term, growth is expected to converge toward 3.5 percent, consistent with the new commodity price normal, amid persistent twin deficits.
This report, commissioned by the Executive Board, was prepared by a committee of academic economists. The report assesses the appropriateness of current research activities, the quality and added value of the IMF's economic research and its utility in the IMF among its member countries and within the wider economics community. This publication also includes responses to the report by the IMF's staff, Managing Director, and Executive Board.
Timor-Leste had made good progress in establishing the basis for a stable and healthy economy prior to the civil unrest in 2006, although it remains one of the poorest countries in the world. This 2006 Article IV Consultation highlights that real non-oil GDP growth turned positive in 2004–05 after contracting for two years. Macroeconomic stability was achieved through the early adoption and maintenance of prudent fiscal and monetary policies. The authorities have maintained a policy of avoiding domestic or external borrowing, hence there is no public sector debt.