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Oliver E. Williamson, Mr. Paul Streeten, W.W. Rostow, Robert L. Ayres, Jagdish N. Bhagwati, Bahram Nowzad, Gary Clyde Hufbauer, Jeffrey J. Schott, M.S. Daoudi, M.S. Dajani, Anand G. Chandavarkar, Iftikhar Ahmed, and Ann Duncan

The global trade negotiations and use of fiscal measures to stimulate savings in developing countries are discussed. The four main elements of the global trading system likely to be at issue in the new round include nondiscrimination and the distinction between border and nonborder measures. Capital markets in developing countries are small, and the scope for diversification of financial institutions and financial instruments or assets is limited. The distinction between border and nonborder measures is blurred in the increased international concern with so-called unfair trade practices.

Monica Gruder

As world economic conditions put increasingly severe pressure on the economies of developed and developing countries alike, the Governors at the 35th Annual Meeting of the World Bank Group addressed novel ways of easing constraints.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper highlights that despite severe limitations of resources, developing countries have made substantial progress during the past three decades in sending more children to school and in generally improving their education systems. Enrollment of children in schools at all levels has expanded at unprecedented rates. There has been a significant decline in the proportion of adults who are illiterate—from 44 percent in 1950 to 32 percent in 1975. Public expenditures for education have increased steadily in developing countries to reach roughly the same share of national product as in industrialized countries.

Philippe Bourcier and Mohsen Shirazi

Many developing countries could use natural gas to reduce oil imports or allow larger oil exports. What are the economic, institutional, and contractual issues that need attention?

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Providing economic opportunities for the poor and building up their capacity to take advantage of those opportunities can help reduce poverty and ensure sustainable growth
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper highlights that the IMF, as Trustee for the Trust Fund, held the first of its series of gold auctions on June 2, 1976, with the sale of 780,000 ounces of gold—the total amount offered—at a common price of US$126.00 a fine ounce. The first gold auction was a success from the point of view of both the market and the IMF. In all, a total of 25 million ounces of gold from the IMF’s holdings will be sold at auction over a four-year period.
ALAN A. TAIT and DAVID R. MORGAN

This paper attempts to assess the role of gasoline taxation in selected countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) since the oil price increases of late 1973 and early 1974, with a view to providing some guidance for future tax policy. It is argued that the experience of these countries in 1970–78 indicates that gasoline taxation has generally declined in real terms. Reluctance to use such taxation seems to stem from skepticism about its potential to reduce demand for gasoline, as well as other concerns that higher gasoline taxation would conflict with such stabilization objectives as the control of inflation, equity, growth, and external equilibrium. The tentative conclusion is that the importance of such concerns is often exaggerated; at the macroeconomic level; the costs appear to be more modest than suggested in most public debate.

Mr. Bob Traa and Ms. Alina Carare

The June 2007 issue of F&D spotlights gender equality. The lead article discusses progress toward fulfilling the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) on redressing gender discrimination and empowering women and related MDGs. The section also looks at how budgeting with gender issues in mind can help countries promote gender equality and what needs to be done to get girls from 'excluded' social groups into school. Other articles focus on Asia 10 years after the financial crisis, the implications of China's and India's growing ties with Africa, and making remittances work for Africa. 'Country Focus' looks at the challenges facing Bulgaria now that it has joined the European Union, 'Picture This' highlights the globalization of labor, and 'Back to Basics' gives a primer on microfinance. Two other pieces discuss the efficiency of public spending in Latin America and how countries can use the public sector balance sheet approach to diagnose vulnerabilities that are not immediately visible in the budget.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
The September 2016 issue of the IMF Research Bulletin includes the following two Research Summaries: “A New Look at Bank Capital” (by Jihad Dagher, Giovanni Dell’Ariccia, Luc Laeven, Lev Ratnovski, and Hui Tong) and “Does Growth Create Jobs?: Evidence for Advance and Developing Economies (by Zidong An, Nathalie Gonzalez Prieto, Prakash Loungani, and Saurabh Mishra). The Q&A article by Rabah Arezki discusses “Seven Questions on Rethinking the Oil Market in the Aftermath of the 2014-16 Price Slump.” A listing of recent IMF Working Papers, Staff Discussion Notes, and Recommended Readings from IMF Publications are also included. Readers can also find an announcement on the 2016 Annual Research Conference and links to top cited 2015 articles in the IMF Economic Review.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.