Este folleto describe la iniciativa que emprendieron el FMI y el Banco Mundial en 1996 para abordar de manera integral la carga global de la deuda de determinados países pobres muy endeudados (PPME) que estaban aplicando programas de ajuste y reforma con el respaldo de ambas instituciones. El objetivo de esta Iniciativa es reducir la deuda de estos países a niveles sostenibles de modo que puedan cumplir con sus obligaciones corrientes y futuras de servicio de la deuda sin comprometer indebidamente su crecimiento económico. Este folleto describe los fundamentos y las principales características de la Iniciativa, según fue concebida originalmente en 1996, y su implementación hasta el cuarto trimestre de 1999, que culminó en la aprobación a finales de ese año de la Iniciativa Reforzada para los PPME, cuya finalidad es suministrar un alivio de la deuda más profundo y más rápido a un mayor número de países. La Iniciativa Reforzada para los PPME también busca asegurar que el alivio de la deuda esté integrado en una estrategia de reducción de la deuda de alcance más general, formulada con una participación de amplia base y adaptada a las circunstancias de cada país.
At their meetings in September 1996, the IMF’s Interim Committee and the IMF and World Bank’s Development Committee endorsed specific proposals put forward jointly by the IMF and the World Bank to address the problems of a limited number of HIPCs that follow sound policies, but for which traditional debt-relief mechanisms are inadequate to secure a sustainable external debt position over the medium term. The Committees requested the two institutions to proceed quickly with the implementation of the Initiative.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
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This paper analyzes Bolivia’s growth performance with a focus on the regional and sectoral patterns of growth, and examines the sources of growth. It discusses the evolution of the hydrocarbon sector, its importance in the economy, and reforms. It also analyzes the intergovernmental fiscal relations system and changes to the revenue sharing arrangements, and suggests possible areas for reform. It assesses measures of reserve adequacy in Bolivia and also provides a look at the external debt after the applications of the main debt relief plans in the past 10 years.
This 2008 Article IV Consultation highlights that Bolivia’s overall fiscal position has improved in 2008. Booming hydrocarbon and mining exports, together with high remittance inflows, led to a record-high current account surplus and large reserve accumulation, with major pressures on monetary/exchange rate policy during the first three quarters of 2008. Executive Directors have noted that strong hydrocarbon and mining exports have continued to support Bolivia’s growth and macroeconomic performance. Directors have also emphasized the importance of well-designed structural reforms for further strengthening Bolivia’s fiscal position.
The staff report for Bolivia’s 2009 Article IV Consultation describes economic developments and policies. The impact of the global recession on Bolivia has been milder than in other countries in the region. Lower commodity exports and remittances have resulted in a sharp narrowing of the external current account surplus. The financial system has been barely affected by the global crisis owing to its limited integration with international capital markets. As the economy gathers momentum, a tighter monetary policy is needed to reduce the risks of excessive credit creation, foreign-exchange pressures, and a pick-up in inflation.
Bolivia showed a solid macroeconomic performance in recent years, owing to its strong trade and prudent economic policies. IMF staff stressed the need to tighten monetary conditions through increasing the policy interest rate as a means to combat inflation. The Executive Board praised authorities for their sound macroeconomic management, and concurred that structural reform and increased investment will enhance economic growth. However, the crisis management framework could be strengthened with a deposit insurance scheme to protect small depositors in the event of bank liquidation.
Well-balanced macroeconomic policies, accompanied by an improvement in terms of trade during recent years, have allowed Bolivia to achieve very positive macroeconomic results. The 2012 Article IV Consultation highlights that the outlook for 2012 is favorable and short-term downside risks are manageable. Real gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to continue growing at a fast pace, reflecting still high terms of trade and mildly expansionary policies. The external current account and the fiscal balance are expected to remain in surplus.