Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 18 items for :

  • El Salvador x
  • Central banks x
Clear All
Eugene A. Birnbaum

As a part of the proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the International Monetary Fund, an Informal Session on “Recent Developments in Monetary Analysis” was held on September 25, 1956. The three papers which were presented at that Session by Dr. M. W. Holtrop, President of De Nederlandsche Bank, Dr. Paolo Baffi, Economic Adviser to Banca d’Italia, and Dr. Ralph A. Young, Director of the Division of Research and Statistics, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, are reproduced below, together with the background paper, “Monetary Analyses,” prepared by the Statistics Division of the Research and Statistics Department of the International Monetary Fund.

WILLIAM L. HEMPHILL

Theoretical and empirical studies of aggregate import behavior generally show the flow of imports to be determined chiefly by aggregate economic activity and by import prices relative to prices of domestically produced substitutes. For many less developed countries, however, this relationship is questionable because of the effects of trade and exchange restrictions. For these countries, imports consist largely of producer goods—capital equipment, maintenance items, and imported components—and there are no adequate domestic substitutes. If restrictions are used to limit imports, there will be a tendency for imports to determine output, rather than the reverse, particularly in the manufacturing sector.

International Monetary Fund

The staff report for El Salvador’s request for a Stand-By Arrangement is examined. Fiscal consolidation led to a reduction in the public debt-to-GDP ratio, and the country has experienced the highest growth rates in a decade. Real GDP growth is projected to slow to 3.2 percent in 2008, reflecting lower growth in remittances, a tightening of external financing conditions, and a decline in investment. Exports, however, have remained buoyant despite weaker external demand. The banking system remains liquid and well capitalized, although nonperforming loans have increased and profitability is declining.

International Monetary Fund

This paper analyzes economic developments in El Salvador during 1990–97. The paper assesses the prospects of the Salvadoran economy in facing the new challenges coming from its reinsertion into the global economy. The paper describes the evolution of trade competitiveness and evaluates the divergence from equilibrium of the real effective exchange rate. It concludes that the exchange rate behavior in the last decade appears to have followed roughly the path predicted by a long-term equilibrium exchange rate model consistent with a current account deficit of about 2 percent of GDP.

JOHN WILLIAMSON

It is widely agreed that the primary objective of any reform of the international arrangements on the supply of reserves should be to establish control over the global volume of liquidity, with a view to ensuring that such control will be conducive to stable growth of the world economy. However, the long-standing academic discussion of “seigniorage,” the practical concern of national officials to safeguard the interest earnings on their reserves, and the campaign by the developing countries to establish a link, all attest to the importance of the financial implications arising from the selection of a set of reserve supply arrangements. This is the subject explored in the present paper.

International Monetary Fund

This 2004 Article IV Consultation highlights that economic growth in El Salvador in recent years has been dampened by adverse external conditions, major earthquakes, and election-related uncertainties. Real GDP growth is estimated at about 1½ percent in 2004 while inflation picked up to more than 5 percent, owing to higher oil prices. The public sector deficit is expected to decline to 3 percent of GDP in 2004. Executive Directors have praised El Salvador’s long-standing record of structural reform and commitment to sound macroeconomic policies, and considered that official dollarization has served El Salvador well.

International Monetary Fund
The primary objective of the program was to prevent a crisis of confidence by signaling policy continuity and providing a liquidity buffer in case such shocks materialized. In addition, the program sought to preserve macroeconomic stability by focusing on sustaining fiscal prudence and financial sector reforms. IMF policy requires an ex post evaluation (EPE) of GRA-supported programs with exceptional access within a year after the end of the arrangement. Large provision of liquidity and effective use of IMF’s lending facilities can be effective in preventing a crisis.
International Monetary Fund
The development of macroeconomic performance in El Salvador in the second half of 2010 was broadly positive, but economic activity remains subdued. The medium-term economic outlook has been revised to incorporate changes to the external environment since the first program review. The economic program for 2011 will adhere to the fiscal consolidation path envisaged in the Stand-By Arrangement (SBA). Higher tax revenue will be critical for attaining the fiscal target. Placing the public debt-to-GDP ratio on a downward path and increasing social spending on a sustained basis remain the key priorities.
International Monetary Fund
This 2004 Article IV Consultation highlights that economic growth in El Salvador in recent years has been dampened by adverse external conditions, major earthquakes, and election-related uncertainties. Real GDP growth is estimated at about 1½ percent in 2004 while inflation picked up to more than 5 percent, owing to higher oil prices. The public sector deficit is expected to decline to 3 percent of GDP in 2004. Executive Directors have praised El Salvador’s long-standing record of structural reform and commitment to sound macroeconomic policies, and considered that official dollarization has served El Salvador well.
International Monetary Fund
The IMF staff report for the third review under the Stand-By arrangement with the officials of El Salvador on economic developments and policies. Developments from the second review are outlined. Discussions on the policy adjustments needed to keep the key objectives of the program for 2011 and 2012 have been explained. Revenue administration, treasury single account (TSA), medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF), and budget reforms are used to strengthen the fiscal consolidation strategy. Lender-of-last-resort (LOLR) facility has been set up to improve liquidity defenses.