In 1994–98, Algeria was successful in restoring macroeconomic stability and implementing structural reforms. The fiscal position deteriorated in the first part of 1999, owing to low oil prices. Executive Directors supported the reform program introduced in early 2000, and welcomed its emphasis on accelerating reform of the banking and public sector companies but stressed the need for detailed implementation plans. The economic environment should be improved to promote private economic activity, including domestic and foreign investment. The authorities are urged to accelerate trade liberalization.
Unlike most nonfinancial corporations, in a market-based economy, banks are subject to a special regime of licensing, regulation, and supervision (hereinafter also “prudential regulation”). In a market-based economy, the function of banks differs from that of other enterprises, calling for special treatment of banks by the state.
Banks require a strong legal framework providing certainty concerning their rights and obligations under the law and permitting them to enforce their financial claims expeditiously and effectively against counterparties in default. Conversely, weaknesses in the legal system that create uncertainties concerning the existence and enforceability of property rights increase the risk that, as debtors hiding behind such weaknesses default on their obligations, banks will not be able to collect on their claims. Inefficiencies in the judicial processing of financial claims by banks may inhibit the marketing of financial assets and reduce their value; this often results in unhealthy accumulations of nonperforming assets on banks’ balance sheets, weakening the banking system as a whole. Meanwhile, banks will cover these risks and market inefficiencies in the form of higher charges, creating upward pressure on transaction costs throughout the economy.
Regulatory intervention includes all action taken by the bank regulator with respect to a bank in response to continuing violations of prudential law (banking law, implementing regulations, etc.) on the part of that bank. Thereby, the bank regulator intervenes directly or indirectly in the bank’s management and operations.
This paper presents key findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment for the Republic of Croatia, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Banking Supervision, Payments Systems, Securities Regulation, Insurance Regulation, and Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency. The financial system of Croatia is now more resilient and seems better prepared to cope with moderate shocks. The larger banks are generally better capitalized, and their risk management capacity has improved. The economy, however, remains highly euroized and susceptible to shifts in residents’ sentiments toward the local currency.
A detailed assessment report on the observance of China’s compliance of Basel Core Principles for effective banking supervision is presented. Regulation and supervision of China’s banking system has made impressive progress in the past few years, led by an activist, forward-looking regulator, the China Banking Regulatory Commission, with a clear safety and soundness mandate that has been supported by banks and by the State. The macroeconomic environment is characterized by rapid growth, with concerns about overheating and asset price overvaluation.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The BoL has been implementing risk-based supervision (RBS) methods on a pilot basis. The RBS manual is now substantially complete, and the BSD staff are applying the RBS methods on a pilot basis. The BSD staff have drafted Institutional Profiles (IP) and Risk Assessment Summaries (RAS) for more than half of the banks; benchmarks and peer groups are being implemented; on-site reports of examination (ROX) have been utilized for several banks.
The mission worked with off-site and on-site teams analyzing data for two pilot banks. Utilizing actual results for two pilot banks, the mission assisted BSD staff in identifying the risks, measuring and evaluating the impact on banks’ condition, and formulating appropriate conclusions and ratings.
This Technical Note presents a targeted review and a follow-up on the implementation of the recommendations of the 2002 assessment of Lithuania’s compliance with the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision. It was found that banking supervision arrangements in Lithuania were of a high standard and either fully or largely complied with the Core Principles. On one Core Principle, Lithuania was judged to be noncompliant at that time, which concerned the lack of explicit legal protection for Bank of Lithuania board members and supervisory staff.
This paper discusses a Detailed Assessment of the Observance of the IMF Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies (MFPT Code)—Banking Supervision for Italy. Banca d’Italia (BI) notes the assessment’s recognition of the very high degree of compliance of the Italian banking supervisory system with MFPT Code. The assessment highlights positive features as the extensive information on banking supervision made publicly available through the annual report and other modes. BI cooperates with other domestic and foreign financial agencies in day-to-day activities through exchange of information and coordinated action.
This paper presents key findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, and Payment Systems for the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAEs financial sector and financial sector supervision are developing unevenly. The financial sector is dominated by well-supervised banks, which pose minimal near-term systemic risk. Although the payment systems are simple and far from state-of-the-art, they are well managed, and systemic risks are limited.