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This paper examines the difference between “capital” and “investment” for developing countries. The paper highlights that investment in material capital is merely one of the factors involved in economic development and that current expenditures on health, education, agricultural extension, family planning, research, management training, and so on, may be equally important or even more important than investment in capital. The paper offers a brief historical survey, drawing attention to factors leading to the development of a market where savers and investors are brought together.

Ms. Irena Asmundson and Ceyda Oner

Technology is generating a global convergence. A "big bang" of information—and education as well—is improving human lives. And with global interconnectivity growing by leaps and bounds, we are all witness to a rapid spread of information and ideas. But, as we have seen from the prolonged global financial crisis, our interconnectedness carries grave risks as well as benefits. This issue of F&D looks at different aspects of interconnectedness, globally and in Asia. • Brookings VP Kemal Devis presents the three fundamental trends in the global economy affecting the balance between east and west in "World Economy: Convergence, Interdependence, and Divergence." • In "Financial Regionalism," Akihiro Kawai and Domenico Lombardi tell us how regional arrangements are helping global financial stability. • In "Migration Meets Slow Growth," Migration Policy Institute president Demetrios Papademetriou examines how the global movement of workers will change as the economic crisis continues in advanced economies. • "Caught in the Web" explains new ways of looking at financial interconnections in a globalized world. • IMF Managing Director Christine Lagarde provides her take on the benefits of integration and the risks of fragmentation in "Straight Talk." Also in this issue, we take a closer look at interconnectedness across Asia as we explore how trade across the region is affected by China's falling trade surplus, how India and China might learn from each others' success, and what Myanmar's reintegration into the global economy means for its people. F&D's People in Economics series profiles Justin Yifu Lin, first developing country World Bank economist, and the Back to Basics series explains the origins and evolution of money.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Articles appearing in Finance and Development may be quoted or reprinted in their entirety, provided that due acknowledgment is made. The Editor would be glad to receive two copies of publications containing such reprints or quotations.

Albert Waterston, David Williams, and Robert F. Skillings

• Singer, H. W., International Development: Growth and Change, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964, xiv + 295 pp., $7.50; • Bhagwati, Jagdish, The Economics of Underdeveloped Countries, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966, 254 pp., $2.45; • Birmingham, W., and A. G. Ford (Eds.), Planning and Growth in Rich and Poor Countries, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., Frederick A. Praeger, 1966, 267 pp., $7.50; • Horowitz, Irving Louis, Three Worlds of Development: The Theory and Practice of International Stratification, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., Oxford University Press, 1966, xiv + 475 pp., $8.50; • Fryer, D. W., World Economic Development, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965, xi + 627 pp., $8.95; • Scott, Andrew M., with William A. Lucas and Trudi M. Lucas, Simulation and National Development, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1966, ix + 177 pp., $5.95.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper explains how the World Bank carries out its most characteristic activity: the identification, preparation, appraisal, and supervision of projects for economic development. The paper highlights that project lending is intended to ensure that the World Bank funds are invested in sound, productive projects with the purpose of contributing both to the borrowing country’s capacity to repay and to the development of its economy. It is in the coincidence of these two purposes that the Bank’s functions as an international financial institution merge with those that it has increasingly assumed as a development institution.

International Monetary Fund

THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK (ECB) has its share of detractors and skeptics who say the institution doesn’t do enough or is too frequently “behind the curve,” in market parlance. Monetary Policy in Times of Crisis is more than a strong defense. Written by a team at the ECB, it is a unique exposition, laid out more transparently than by any other advanced economy central bank, of the analysis that draws from theory and models to inform the deliberations of its governing council’s monetary policy decisions. Readers will be impressed with what is under the hood—the science and art that go into monetary policymaking.

Benn Steil, Anat R. Admati, Martin Hellwig, Robin Jeffrey, and Assa Doron

Two years ago, citizens in the Arab world—fired by their ideals and visions of a better life—ignited a social movement that inspired people around the globe. In Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, and Yemen—the so-called Arab countries in transition—people embraced change, ushering in a new era. This issue of F&D looks at the difficulties of this transition, focusing on long-standing forces that shape the region’s economy and offering options for moving ahead to achieve strong, inclusive growth. • Masood Ahmed, Director of the IMF’s Middle East and Central Asia Department, maps out an agenda for modernizing and diversifying the region’s economies in “Toward Prosperity for All.” • In “Freedom and Bread Go Together,” Marwan Muasher addresses the intersection of economic progress and political change. • Vali Nasr, in a Point of View column, underscores the vital role small and medium-sized enterprises play in a successful democratic transition. Elsewhere in this issue, we look at how surging oil and gas production in the United States could shake up global energy markets; the effect of uncertainty on economic growth; and Mexico’s competitiveness rebound. F&D's People in Economics series profiles Christina Romer, former chair of the U.S. Council of Economic Advisers and an architect of the U.S. stimulus package; and the latest installment in our Back to Basics series explains how structural policies help to both stabilize and strengthen economies.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

An integral part of the process of monetary reform is the amendment of the Articles of Agreement, which are, in effect, the constitution of the Fund. After a prolonged and difficult period of discussion of various aspects in the Board of Governors, the Committee of Twenty, the Interim Committee, and the Executive Board, the proposed text of the amended Articles of Agreement was submitted by the Executive Board on March 31, 1976 to the Board of Governors and approved by a majority of votes cast at the end of April 1976. The proposed amendments to the Articles will become effective for all members when accepted by three fifths of the members of the Fund representing four fifths of the total voting power. The summary below of some of the proposed changes in the Articles is based on the Introduction to the Report of the Executive Board that accompanies the proposed amendments.