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  • Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped; Non-labor Market Discrimination x
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Joel E. Cohen and David E. Bloom

The paper highlights that over the past century, access to education has increased enormously, illiteracy has fallen dramatically, and a higher proportion of people are completing primary, secondary, or tertiary education than ever before. But huge problems remain. About 115 million children of primary school age are not currently enrolled in school. Most are illiterate and live in absolute poverty—the majority female. Some 264 million children of secondary school age are not currently enrolled, and the quality of schooling is often low.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Finland’s economy has made impressive strides in recent years, but will face the challenge of population aging earlier than any other country in the European Union, the IMF said in its annual economic assessment. Aided by strong productivity gains, a stable macroeconomic policy framework, low inflation, and sizable fiscal surpluses, the economy weathered the recent global slowdown relatively well, and an improved domestic and external climate is set to strengthen growth. However, structural unemployment remains high, and employment stagnant.