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This paper discusses the following selected issues related to the São Tomé and Príncipe’s economy: tourism competitiveness in São Tomé and Príncipe—challenges and strategy, macro-financial linkages, private sector development, and challenges of small financial systems. São Tomé and Príncipe has experienced significantly faster growth in tourism than most tourism-dependent small states (TDSS). An application of a tourism gravity model shows that São Tomé and Príncipe is competitive in compared to TDSS. However, tourism development in this country faces broad challenges both on the micro and micro level. São Tomé and Príncipe can do well with venture capital-type financing for micro, small-, and medium-sized enterprises.
This Selected Issues paper for the Kingdom of the Netherlands reports the Antillean economy lacks natural resources and is open and undiversified, relying mainly on exports of services such as tourism, international financial services, shipping, and oil refining. Exports and domestic consumer spending, both private and public, drove the economic recovery. Economic growth in the United States and the appreciation of the euro against the national currency contributed to the strong performance in the tourism sector.
The COVID-19 pandemic will hit Montenegro hard, as tourism is a key industry. Fiscal space has eroded in recent years due to large public capital outlays, and the COVID-19 crisis is creating new budgetary strains as health spending and other expenditures rise, while the economic contraction lowers revenues.
The macroeconomic environment is sound, with low inflation and a comfortable external position, although the fiscal position remains a concern for the medium term. The authorities have successfully privatized and liberalized the telecommunications, energy, and transportation sectors. Moreover, Morocco has significantly liberalized its trade regime and strengthened its financial sector. These reforms have enhanced the overall productivity of the economy and heightened its resilience to shocks. The medium-term outlook is favorable. The government debt-to-GDP ratio has declined steadily since the turn of the century.
This paper discusses key findings of the First Review for Seychelles under the Stand-By Arrangement. Developments under the program at end-December 2008 were broadly satisfactory. Although growth was lower and inflation higher than targeted in 2008, the liberalization of the exchange regime and interest rate have removed the severe distortions weighing on the economy, and early signs of stabilization are apparent. The program targets for 2009 have been adjusted, primarily in light of the much more difficult external environment.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper discusses infrastructure development and building of roads in Honduras. The paper highlights that in countries with backward transportation systems, the concept of “road” takes on an almost philosophical significance. The paper discusses the Western Highway in Honduras that was financed in 1961 by the first credit ever made by the International Development Association, the World Bank’s soft-loan affiliate. Between its terminal points, the highway provides individuals of the area with reasonably easy access to markets, and is encouraging them to expand their agricultural production.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper discusses achievement and failure of science in increasing world animal production. The paper highlights that the application of modern animal production technology is virtually confined to Western Europe, to the North American continent, to Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. The new technologies are not yet used in other parts of the world. Hardly more than a handful of their farmers have any knowledge or understanding of production methods commonplace in highly developed countries.
This 2010 Article IV Consultation highlights that macroeconomic outcomes have weakened significantly for St. Lucia. Real GDP is estimated to have contracted by 5.2 percent in 2009, reflecting a sharp decline in visitor arrivals and construction activity related to foreign direct investment. For 2010, the outlook is for a nascent recovery, supported by higher advance hotel bookings and additional flights to the island. Against this backdrop, Executive Directors have welcomed the authorities’ commitment to implement a credible fiscal framework to achieve fiscal sustainability.
International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, &, and Review Department
Debt peaked at around 160 percent of GDP in 2010, and had been considered unsustainable since 2006. The sharp downturn coinciding with the global financial crisis created a large financing gap forcing a debt restructuring and exceptional access to Fund resources. The programmed mix of financing and adjustment was reasonable-the fiscal adjustment was large and frontloaded, as was the financing from the Fund and through the restructuring.