Analysis and Plans, presents an assessment of 1997 survey data and a summary of improvements introduced, as a result of countries' participation in the 1997 Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey, into national systems for collecting data on international (cross-border) portfolio investment The chapter reviews developments that occurred in international financial markets in the 1980s and 1990s, and the Godeaux Report assessment and recommendations about global data on international portfolio investment flows and stocks. The objectives set for the 1997 survey, the scope of survey results, and the process by which results have been assessed in the chapter. Since publication of the Godeaux Report, substantial expansion and evolution have occurred in exchange and over-the-counter markets for financial derivatives covering a range of financial risks. These markets now have the capacity, in effect, to change the currencies, maturities, and marketability of the financial instruments underlying associated derivative contracts. It is recommended that vigorous efforts should be made to secure the participation of more major investing countries in order to address the under-reporting of global portfolio investment assets and to confirm the reliability of the global data on portfolio investment liabilities.
'Wising Up to the Costs of Aging' looks at how falling fertility and rising life expectancy have combined to threaten the ability of many countries to provide a decent standard of living for the old without imposing a crushing burden on the young. In our lead article, Ronald Lee and Andrew Mason say that while population aging in rich industrial countries as well as in some middle- and lower-income countries will challenge public and private budgets in many ways, a combination of reduced consumption, postponed retirement, increased asset holdings, and greater investment in human capital should make it possible to meet this challenge without catastrophic consequences. Neil Howe and Richard Jackson publish a fascinating ranking of which countries are best and worst prepared to meet the needs of the growing wave of retirees. We also have articles on a broad range of current topics, including Middle East unemployment, the economic repercussions of the earthquake and devastating tsunami in Japan, and banking in offshore financial centers such as the Cayman Islands. Carmen Reinhart and Jacob Kirkegaard look at how governments are finding ways to manipulate markets to hold down the cost of financing huge public debts, and, in Straight Talk, the IMF's Min Zhu talks about the long-term challenges now facing emerging markets. Prakash Loungani speaks to Nobel Prize winner George Akerlof, and we discuss with three other laureates-Michael Spence, Joseph Stiglitz, and Robert Solow-what the global economic crisis has taught us. Back to Basics explains economic models, and Picture This highlights the great variations in the cost of sending money back home.
This paper discusses findings of the assessment of Financial Sector Supervision and Regulation on the Cayman Islands. The assessment reveals that substantial progress has been made in the implementation of the 2003 Offshore Financial Center assessment recommendations, including, importantly, regarding Cayman Islands Monetary Authority’s independence and resources. There is scope for enhancing regulatory reporting and disclosure requirements by financial entities, such as shortening the period for filing required documents and requiring all insurers to disclose their use of derivatives and similar commitments regularly.
This paper focuses on observance of standards and codes on the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) recommendations for antimoney laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) for the Cayman Islands. The assessment reveals that the Cayman Islands’s legal framework for combating money laundering and terrorism financing is comprehensive. All designated categories of offences enumerated in the FATF 40 Recommendations are predicate offences under the Cayman law. The criminalization of FT is in accordance with FATF requirements. The confiscation regime meets most standards and is effective.
This paper highlights key findings of the assessment of financial sector regulation and supervision in the Cayman Islands. The assessment reveals that in the last two years, an extensive program of legislative, rule, and guideline development in the Cayman Islands has introduced an increasingly effective system of regulation, both formalizing earlier practices and introducing enhanced procedures. The implementation of financial regulation and supervision complies broadly with standards in all the areas assessed. However, issues related to resources and potential breaches of operational autonomy affect the regulator and, hence, supervision in all sectors.
This paper reviews key findings of the detailed assessment of the Observance of Standards and Codes in the Financial Sector of the Cayman Islands. Banks in the Cayman Islands operate within a well-defined prudential regulatory framework, generally in accordance with Basel standards, that is, largely modeled after the framework currently in use in the United Kingdom. The two-tiered required minimum risk capital standards are significantly above those required by the Basel Capital Accord and are applied in practice based primarily on the perceived differences in risk related to bank ownership.
The 1980s saw an unprecedented growth in the volume and the complexity of international financial transactions (Chart 1). This has been accompanied by a significant deterioration in the coverage and quality of the data. As a result, it has become very difficult, and at times impossible, for policymakers to base judgments on reported balance of payments statistics, particularly statistics on international capital flows. Unless appropriate action is taken, there will almost certainly be a further deterioration, with inevitable consequences for policymaking.
This year’s Annual Meetings of the Boards of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund—the thirty-fourth—were held in Belgrade from October 2 to 5. The participants were faced with a difficult international economic situation as they met to discuss and chart the future direction of the world economy. This article reports on the main themes of the Fund Meeting.