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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper discusses systematic issues in international finance explained in the International Capital Markets report. The paper describes that the nature and extent of recent banking problems in several industrial countries along with the policy responses to those problems. It is observed that balance sheet problems in banking are widespread among the major industrial countries. The paper also analyses recent activity in the European currency unit bond and exchange markets, and reviews developments in the private financing of developing countries and discusses several issues raised by the recent experience, including the broadening of the investor base for developing country securities, the special role played by regional financial centers in East and Southeast Asia, and the systemic implications of the evolving pattern of developing country financing. A key influence on international capital movements in recent years was the rising international diversification of investment portfolios, which is generally believed to have increased in response to the liberalization of exchange and capital controls in many industrial countries in the 1970s and 1980s.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The countries and territories included in the major country groups of the Fund’s World Economic Outlook are listed below.1

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

There is now a free forward exchange market.26 Authorized foreign exchange dealers (banks and nonbank financial institutions) are permitted to negotiate forward exchange contracts in any currency. They may deal among themselves and with their customers, including both residents and nonresidents, at mutually negotiated rates. The Reserve Bank sets a limit for each dealer’s overall overnight foreign exchange exposure. However, in aggregate, dealers rarely use more than 25 percent of their approved limit.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

—The stage of the restructuring or new money package process when the advisory committee banks seek the approval of other creditor banks of a draft agreement negotiated with the restructuring country.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Data on changes in bank claims and liabilities are derived from stock data on the reporting countries’ liabilities and assets, excluding changes attributed to exchange rate movements.

Ms. Kalpana Kochhar, Ms. Yan M Sun, Ms. Evridiki Tsounta, and Mr. Niklas J Westelius

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.