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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

1.0 A price index number is a summary measure of the proportionate or percentage change in a set of prices over time. Export and import price indices (XMPIs) measure the overall change in the price component of transactions in goods and services between the residents of an economic territory and residents of the rest of the world. The prices of different goods and services all do not change at the same rate. A price index thus summarizes their movement by averaging over them. A price index assumes a value of unity, or 100, in some reference period. The value of the index for other periods of time provides the average proportionate or percentage change in price from the reference period.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

1.1 A price index is a measure of the proportionate, or percentage, changes in a set of prices over time. A consumer price index (CPI) measures changes in the prices of goods and services that households consume. Such changes affect the real purchasing power of consumers’ incomes and their welfare. As the prices of different goods and services do not all change at the same rate, a price index can only reflect their average movement. A price index is typically assigned a value of unity, or 100, in some reference period and the values of the index for other periods of time are intended to indicate the average proportionate, or percentage, change in prices from this price reference period. Price indices can also be used to measure differences in price levels between different cities, regions or countries at the same point in time.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

1.1 A price index is a measure of the proportionate, or percentage, changes in a set of prices over time. PPIs measure changes in the prices of domestic producer goods and services. Such measures need to distinguish between changes in the volume of domestic production and such changes in nominal terms. Because the prices of different goods and services do not all change at the same rate, a price index can reflect only their average movement. A price index typically assumes a value of unity, or 100, in some base period. The values of the index for other periods of time show the average proportionate, or percentage, change in prices from the base period. Price indices can also measure differences in price levels between different cities, regions, or countries at the same point of time.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

156. Australia’s foreign currency reserves are managed by the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA). At the end of June 2002, the gross value of the reserves portfolio was US$20 billion, representing around half of the central bank’s assets. The primary role of the reserves portfolio is to fund foreign exchange market operations that arise as part of the Bank’s broader monetary policy function. Reflecting this, the reserves are managed in a manner that gives priority to low levels of credit risk, limited exposure to market risk, and maintaining a high degree of liquidity. Subject to these objectives, the Bank also seeks to earn a positive return on the portfolio.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The Brazilian government has been implementing several measures to improve the conduct of public debt management. This document provides an overview of the main guidelines currently followed by Brazilian public debt officials, drawing comparisons to those proposed by the IMF and the World Bank in their joint report, Guidelines for Public Debt Management.