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Alexander D Klemm, Miguel Pecho, Sandro de Vargas Serpa, and David Wentworth
Stoyan E Markov, Fadia B Sakr, and Patrick De Mets

The Egyptian Tax Administration (ETA) is undergoing a significant transformation within the framework of the MTRS. This summary provides an overview of ETA's progress in implementing the MTRS tax administration initiatives and highlights priority areas for future action. The report focused on key considerations to maintain reform momentum in tax administration under the MTRS in the areas of governance arrangements, organizational structure, human resource management, digitalization, and risk management. The report also contains a mid-term capacity development plan with identified priority areas to further support implementation of the MTRS in the area of tax administration.

Petr Jakubik

The technical assistance is focused on enhancing the joint financial stability report of the Central Bank of Barbados and the Barbados Financial Services Commission. The mission concluded that the preparation of a detailed FSR production plan and communication strategy is of critical importance and could facilitate improvements and promote the report. The report should encompass all crucial elements of financial stability assessment and needs to be streamlined to follow the central storyline with key messages. The quality of the report could be further enhanced though advancements in the analytical toolkit employed and the utilization of all available data sources.

Trever A Lessard, Laszlo Buzas, and Bill Northfield

This paper discusses high-level summery technical assistance report that focuses on Botswana’s domestic bond market development. The implementation of a new monetary policy framework to support the Bank of Botswana’s (BoB) inflation targeting regime is a welcome development for domestic debt market development. There is significant scope to make progress on the authorities’ goal to shift funding from nonconcessional external borrowing to the domestic bond market. Coordination between debt management and liquidity management should be enhanced to facilitate the expansion of the domestic debt market. Material improvements in the secondary market will take more time to bear fruit, and efforts in this area should be sequenced after building blocks that are more foundational are operating more efficiently. Measures to develop the domestic debt market are likely to result temporarily in higher funding costs, but this is a necessary investment in the process and will likely be counterbalanced by lower financing costs in the medium-to-long term.

Katja Funke, Alberto Garcia Huitron, and Didier Tabaro

Cabo Verde faces development challenges from multiple structural factors, including insularity, territorial discontinuity, fragility of ecosystems, and scarcity of natural resources, namely water and arable land. Climate change implications are amplifying these challenges. As an island extension of the arid Sahel zone, Cabo Verde faces severe water shortage, which the country addresses more and more through energy intensive desalination, using electricity produced largely by thermal power plants, which depend entirely on imported fossil fuels. The resulting high energy prices directly impact the cost of water production. In conjunction with climate change induced aridity, the energy-water-climate nexus presents the core development challenge for the country.