The Technical Assistance Report on the Philippines’ road map for a pro-growth and equitable tax system is examined. Tax revenue has declined over the last decade in the Philippines owing to generous and expanding tax incentives, tariff rate reduction, deteriorating tax compliance caused by ineffective and inefficient revenue administration, and a gradual erosion of excise revenue owing to nonindexation. One of the key reasons for providing tax incentives in the Philippines is concern that the country needs to be competitive with other countries in the region to attract foreign direct investment.
The Selected Issues paper discusses Cambodia’s poverty and growth, private sector development, public financial management reform, and debt sustainability. It summarizes the Poverty Assessment and describes the regime of tax incentives, costs, and limits for private investment. It also summarizes the assessment of Cambodia’s Public Expenditure Management system and Public Financial Management Reform Program. It highlights the key reform priorities, and provides historical background on Cambodia’s external and domestic debt. It also includes a statistical appendix and a summary of the tax system.
This paper provides the IMF's projections and estimates of Thailand on basic data; summary of the central and local government tax systems, May 2003; portfolio investment liabilities, debt securities; other liabilities, trade credits, and loans; external debt stocks and flows by creditor group and main debtor; summary of import tariff statistics; average wages, classified by manufacturing categories; population, labor force, and employment by major economic sectors during 1996–2002; construction and the property market; promotional activities of the board investment; selected energy prices during 1996–2003; stock market indicators; foreign investor participation in the securities exchange of Thailand during 1997–2003, and so on.
This paper presents details of a symposium on forecasting performance I organized under the auspices of the IMF Staff Papers. The assumption that the forecaster's goal is to do as well as possible in predicting the actual outcome is sometimes questionable. ln the context of private sector forecasts, this is because the incentives for forecasters may induce them to herd rather than to reveal their true forecasts. Public sector forecasts may also be distorted, although for different reasons. Forecasts associated with IMF programs, for example, are often the result of negotiations between the IMF staff and the country authorities and are perhaps more accurately viewed as goals, or targets, rather than pure forecasts. The standard theory of time series forecasting involves a variety of components including the choice of an information set, the choice of a cost function, and the evaluation of forecasts in terms of the average costs of the forecast errors. It is generally acknowledged that by including more relevant information in the information set, one should be able to produce better forecasts.
The Philippines is faced with a policy dilemma in the area of corporate taxation. On the one hand, the country has, over the past few years, witnessed a decline in revenue as a share of output. On the other, it is operating in an increasingly competitive regional market for foreign direct investment. In order to remain competitive, the Philippines offers a broad array of fiscal incentives to entice inward investment and pursue the country's development goals. This paper looks at the fiscal incentives available in the Philippines, compares them with those available in the ASEAN region, and with the evidence on the efficacy of tax incentives in a global context. The paper provides some broad conclusions on the use of the various forms of tax incentives in the Philippines and on their administration.
This paper focuses on tax policy and the crisis in Asia in the context of globalization and technological change. Two sets of conclusions, specific tax reform measures and general lessons from the crisis, form the tax policy agenda on these issues. The complexity and volume of financial transactions, associated with the opening of emerging markets, have made tax administration a more challenging task. Just as strengthening financial systems must be a precursor to capital account liberalization, tax administrations clearly also require strengthening in such an environment. In many emerging markets the capacity to tax capital returns is limited. Tax administrators need to understand and monitor complex financial transactions that grew rapidly due both to financial sector liberalization and technological innovation. Traditional difficulties for tax administrators, such as transfer pricing, that had often been limited to natural resource sectors in developing economies, took on wider importance as local companies gained sophistication and developed offshore operations.
This Selected Issues paper examines recent developments in inflation and its key determinants in the Czech Republic, with particular focus on the role of wages. A simple analytical framework is presented that relates inflation to wages, import prices, and money, and the interaction of inflation with these variables is then examined empirically in the context of a vector autoregression model. The findings confirm the critical influence of wages, exchange rate changes, and money growth. The paper also analyzes developments in the public finance.