Over the last two decades, cash holdings in nonfinancial firms around the world have increased. This phenomenon is particularly concerning in Japan, where the success of Abenomics depends on a transition from stimulus-driven to self-sustaining growth based on private consumption and investment. This paper finds that Japanese nonfinancial firms have accumulated cash at the expense of investment and dividends, hampering this transition. The evidence suggests that cash accumulation is due to financial imperfections combined with rising corporate profitability and uncertainty, while corporate governance plays only a limited role. These firms have cash holdings available for investment of about 5 percent of GDP. Policy options for encouraging the use of these cash holdings include improving firms’ access to market-based financing and discouraging CEO duality.
Ms. Sally Chen, Mr. Philip Liu, Andrea M. Maechler, Chris Marsh, Mr. Sergejs Saksonovs, and Mr. Hyun S Shin
This paper explores the concept of global liquidity, its measurement and macro-financial importance. We construct two sets of indicators for global liquidity: a quantity series distinguishing between core and noncore liabilities of financial intermediatires and a corresponding price series. Using price and quantity indicators simultaneously, it is possible to distinguish between shocks to the supply and demand for global liquidity, and isolate their impact on the economy. Our results confirm that global liquidity conditions matter for economic and financial stability, and points to indicators whose regular monitoring could be valuable to policymakers.
Burundi’s economy has continued to grow at a slower pace than envisaged owing to the impact of food and fuel shocks on aggregate demand. The macroeconomic outlook remains broadly positive but subject to risks that emanate from the security situation and the external environment. The foremost risks are a decline in donor support, warranting an abrupt fiscal adjustment, and a worsening in the security situation. These risks are mitigated in part by reforms that have improved revenue mobilization and efforts in nation building.
The reports highlights that, even though the Russian economy has started reviving from the crisis, growth has been moderate and inflation high. Executive Directors have advised that the focus should be on reducing fiscal vulnerabilities, lowering inflation, promoting a stronger and more competitive banking system, and creating a favorable environment for investment and economic diversification. Directors encouraged the authorities to undertake growth-friendly, credible, and ambitious fiscal consolidation. They have supported the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) recommendations to strengthen financial sector policies.
The Burundian economy is recovering but at a slower pace than previously expected, while inflation is expected to rise considerably. The macroeconomic outlook has been adversely affected by the surge in global food and fuel prices. Policies focused on the appropriate policy response to the food and fuel price shock, with a view to consolidating economic stability and further reducing poverty are required. Executive Directors urge the government to anchor medium-term fiscal policy to debt sustainability. Sustained growth depends on accelerating structural reforms.
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
Based on the economic development and policies of Kenya, the staff report was prepared. GDP growth was broadly supported by both private and public investment. Policy issues related to monetary tightening to reign in inflationary expectations, medium-term, monitoring and emerging financial risks and gradual fiscal consolidation are discussed. A waiver for the nonobservance of the performance criteria on net domestic asset (NDA) and net international reserves (NIR) is outlined. A comprehensive public financial management at both the central and county government levels was introduced as a structural reform.
The staff report highlights that the economy of Kiribati showed resilience from the global crisis owing to infrastructure projects financed by foreign assistance. Executive Directors stressed the importance of preserving real per capita value of the Revenue Equalization Reserve Fund to ensure fiscal sustainability and intergenerational fairness. They appreciated the multiyear budget framework, which helped in designing realistic fiscal plans. Directors noted the joint IMF-World Bank debt sustainability analysis and encouraged authorities to secure grant financing to support the country’s development needs.