Mr. Olumuyiwa S Adedeji, Huancheng Du, and Mr. Maxwell Opoku-Afari
The inclusiveness of growth depends on the extent of access to economic and social opportunities. This paper applies the concept of social opportunity function to ascertain the inclusiveness of growth episodes in selected African countries. Premised on the concept of social welfare function, inclusive growth is associated with increased average opportunities available to the population and improvement in their distribution. The paper establishes that the high growth episodes in the last decade in the selected countries came with increased average opportunities in education and health; but distribution of such opportunities varied across countries, depending on the country-specific policies underpining the growth episodes.
This Annual Progress Report reviews the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and Economic and Social Plan for 2007 for Mozambique. The report presents the new simplified structure adopted in the Review of the First Half of 2007. In the international context, the evolution of the international economy is presented, which allows a visualization of the international economic conditions in which the country has implemented its economic and social policy. The activities of the environment and the science and technology sectors are also described.
The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) on the Republic of Mozambique review the country’s macroeconomic, structural, and social policies in support of growth and poverty reduction, and external financing needs and major sources of financing. It is essential to guarantee that mechanisms of democratization are present within the political parties and to develop participative democracy. Monitoring and evaluation is also a means of keeping abreast of not only the government, but also organizations in civil society, the Mozambican legislature, and the cooperation partners.
This paper reviews Mozambique’s economic and social plan for 2003. It presents the actions that have been taken to improve the current planning instrument. The paper outlines the social and demographic profile of Mozambique and reviews the extent to which the current strategy for the reduction of absolute poverty in the country is meeting its aims. Results are presented in terms of changes in the welfare indicators, and the extent to which Mozambique is on course to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
Mozambique's performance under the authorities' program during the first three quarters of 2003 continued to be satisfactory. The discussions focused on the macroeconomic policies for 2004–06 and the government's plans to address pending structural reforms to broaden and sustain growth and further reduce poverty. Discussions on structural issues concentrated on the authorities' plans to remove a number of obstacles to private sector development. A strengthened monetary and exchange rate management will be essential in Mozambique, particularly in view of the high degree of dollarization.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Southern Africa is the region of the world hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, with HIV prevalence rates ranging from about 15 percent to 35 percent of the adult population. Addressing an area in which little research has been done and few data are available, Economist Markus Haacker of the IMF’s African Department studied the economic consequences of HIV/AIDS in nine southern African countries, including the effects on the health sector, public education, and the labor supply. He recently spoke to the IMF Survey about his study.
This Selected Issues paper on Mozambique provides an assessment of direct taxation and options to strengthen tax administration. The study analyzes the question of why Mozambique accumulated unsustainable debt, and discusses the potential factors of the evolution of the debt burden over time. The report also describes the characteristics and causes of rural poverty, the issues to be addressed for its reduction, and analyzes the opportunities and constraints facing smallholder agriculture and cash cropping. It also provides a statistical appendix report for the country.
Poverty has remained widespread in Mozambique, mostly on account of the prevalent war situation. This paper provides a profile of the lowest income groups in Mozambique and examines how they were affected by the economic recovery program of 1986–90. The results, indicate that despite large price adjustments, in real terms minimum and low wages improved over the 1986–90 period. Agricultural production increased in response to better incentives, and small farmers in safe areas improved their relative income position. However, in the presence of a large refugee population and war-related destruction, there continues to be a pressing need for extended emergency aid.