Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 12 items for :

  • Czech Republic x
  • Diseases: AIDS and HIV x
Clear All
Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. William C. Hsiao

Abstract

This primer explains why macroeconomists need to be concerned with issues of health policy and elaborates the essential information that a macroeconomist should know in providing inputs to discussions on health sector policy. The primer illustrates how these issues and the range of appropriate policy options may differ depending on the state of development of an economy and the particular approach taken by a country in structuring its health system. The primer also highlights the appropriate roles for the state and market in health care financing and provision, taking account of the various sources of market failure in the health sector.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper focuses on overcoming the challenges of globalization. The paper highlights that globalization has the potential to make all individuals better off. However, there is no assurance that all individuals will be better off or that all changes will be positive. The studies that show that, on average, poverty declines with economic growth are encouraging. But averages hide the negative impact on individual countries and on certain groups. In addition, there are important questions about the relationships between economic policies and outcomes, especially the impact of macroeconomic and structural reform policies on poverty.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Para estar al corriente del pensamiento actual sobre el sistema financiero internacional, la política monetaria, el desarrollo económico, la reducción de la pobreza y otros temas cruciales, suscríbase a Finanzas y Desarrollo. Esta amena revista trimestral ofrece análisis profundos del personal técnico del FMI y destacados expertos internacionales sobre estas y otras cuestiones. Los artículos están dirigidos a un público no especializado que desea comprender mejor el funcionamiento de la economía mundial y las políticas y actividades del FMI.
Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. William C. Hsiao

Abstract

Whether working on a low-income country or an advanced economy, it is important that macroeconomists be aware of issues in health economics and health policy. Health care has gained prominent recognition in development. The United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set 10 specific targets to be achieved by 2015, of which three explicitly pertain to health. Research studies document that millions of households in developing nations are impoverished each year by health expenditures, retarding poverty alleviation efforts, and an emerging body of research shows that investments in health can have a significant effect on economic development (Bloom and Canning, 2000; Fogel, 2004; and Bloom, Canning, and Sevilla, 2004). HIV/AIDS has undermined the development prospects of a number of African countries and threatens to weaken the growth momentum of several important Asian economies. For middle-income economies, transition economies, and industrial countries, the challenge posed by the health sector for macroeconomists differs, but is no less daunting. Increasingly, pressures emerging from the health sector—in part owing to the aging of populations and in part due to the rapid pace of technological change in the medical sector—are affecting fiscal sustainability, inflation, and possibly even the current account of the balance of payments.

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. William C. Hsiao

Abstract

As a general rule, issues of health care policy have not generally been seen as the domain of macroeconomists. Only in recent years, with the report of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) (WHO, 2001, 2002), has there been a greater focus on why health issues are relevant to macroeconomic policymakers and, in particular, ministers of finance. That report also provided further support for the prominence of health goals (for example, reduced infant and maternal mortality rates as well as reduced prevalence rates for HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis) in formulating the MDGs. The CMH initiative principally sought to demonstrate that progress in improving health in low-income countries could be a critical factor influencing the growth potential of a country. In particular, the CMH report explored the various ways in which better health status could improve the quality of the labor force; enhance productivity, in both the short and the long run; limit the extent to which catastrophic illnesses can lead to households falling into poverty; raise household saving rates; and reduce fertility rates.3

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. William C. Hsiao

Abstract

Certain basic facts about the health sector and health care are not widely known. This section explains what macroeconomists should know on this subject as they participate in the formulation of health policies.

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. William C. Hsiao

Abstract

Although specific issues confront nations at different stages of development, several issues confront all nations throughout the world. We first present the universal issues, then the ones for each stage.

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. William C. Hsiao

Abstract

Like other socioeconomic systems, a health system is structured by state action or inaction to serve certain social purposes. A state makes conscious decisions in structuring the system to achieve certain objectives or takes no action, allowing the system to become a laissez-faire free market system. Simply put, a health system is a means to an end. It exists and evolves to serve societal needs. Under this paradigm, a health system is a set of relationships in which the means—structural elements of the system—are causally connected to the ends or goals.