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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper discusses the progress made on Côte d'Ivoire’s National Development Plan (PND) 2012–15. In the area of planning, the 2012–13 PND served to move planning to the forefront of public action. In addition, the National Bureau of Population has been set up to better address the problems of population and development. In the area of justice and human rights, the policy guidance paper has been prepared and is now being implemented. In the area of civil protection, the actions carried out have centered on strengthening the institutional and legal framework for preventing and managing risks and disasters and building up the operational capabilities of bodies in charge of civil protection.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
El FMI se une a la lucha contra la crisis alimentaria, Resurge el riesgo de inflación, Mark Plant, Entrevista: El FMI y la crisis alimentaria, Perspectivas económicas de Oriente Medio, Resistencia de los mercados emergentes, Côte d'Ivoire resurge, Reformas financieras en Ghana, Banca islámica y estabilidad financiera, Informe sobre el gobierno interno del FMI, Tom Bernes, Notas breves
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Le FMI aide les pays à faire face à la crise alimentaire; Risques d'inflation; Mark Plant, FMI et crise alimentaire; Perspectives du Moyen-Orient; Résistance des pays émergents; Le retour de la Côte d'Ivoire; Réformes financières au Ghana; Banques Islamiques; Rapport sur la gouvernance du FMI, Tom Bernes; L'actualité en bref.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Food Price Crisis, Inflation Risks, Mark Plant, IMF and the Food Crisis, Multilateral Initiative, Middle East Regional OUtllok, Emerging Markets' Resilience, Côte d'Ivoire's Comeback, Ghana's Financial Reforms, Islamic Banks and Financial Stability, Report on IMF Governance, Tom Bernes, News Briefs.
Mr. Jeromin Zettelmeyer, Ms. Beatrice Weder, and Mr. Christoph A Klingen
We estimate ex post returns to emerging market debt by combining secondary-market prices with observed flows based on World Bank data. From 1970-2000, returns averaged 9 percent per annum, about the same as returns on a ten-year U.S. treasury bond. This reflects the combined effect of the 1980s debt crisis and much higher returns during 1989-2000. Annual returns since 1986 have been less volatile than emerging market equity returns but more volatile than returns on U.S. corporate or high-yield bonds. However, unlike returns on these bonds, emerging market debt returns do not seem significantly correlated with U.S. or world stock markets.
International Monetary Fund


This paper discusses developments and issues concerning export credits from the perspective of the economic adjustment process of indebted developing countries. This emphasis is consistent with the principle that officially supported export credit—whether it takes the form of direct official credits or insurance and guarantees on privately funded credits—is an instrument of commercial financing for exports and not a means of aid finance. All creditor governments have a broad range of objectives in using the economic instruments at their disposal to help overcome the adjustment problems of heavily indebted countries, with which important bilateral trade relations are being maintained. In support of an expansion in world trade and notwithstanding the competitive element, export credit insurance and guarantees may have a special role in helping to catalyze private credit flows, especially since such a role coincides with the interest of private lenders to shift away from general purpose balance of payments finance to trade and project finance.