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Mr. Zamid Aligishiev, Mr. Giovanni Melina, and Luis-Felipe Zanna
This note is a user’s manual for the DIGNAR-19 toolkit, an application aimed at facilitating the use of the DIGNAR-19 model by economists with no to little knowledge of Matlab and Dynare via a user-friendly Excel-based interface. he toolkit comprises three tools—the simulation tool, the graphing tool, and the realism tool—that translate the contents of an Excel input file into instructions for Matlab/Dynare programs. These programs are executed behind the scenes. Outputs are saved in a separate Excel file and can also be visualized in customizable charts.
Rasmané Ouedraogo, Rene Tapsoba, Moussé Sow, and Ali Compaoré
Does the reliance on diversified tax structure enhance resilience to fiscal risks? This paper gives an answer to this question by proposing a new cross-country tax revenue diversification index (RDI). The RDI builds on the Theil index, and unlike the few existing tax diversification indices, which are constructed only at the state level for the US, is computed at the national level, covering a broad panel of 127 countries over the period 2000-15. We find suggestive evidence that tax revenue diversification reduces tax revenue volatility, thus bringing to the data long-held views about the prominence of tax revenue diversification for fiscal resilience strengthening. While exploring the drivers of the RDI, we find that tax revenue diversification is not just a reflection of economic diversification, but also an outcome of macroeconomic, political and institutional factors. Interestingly, a non-monotone relationship is also at play between the RDI and economic development, with countries’ portfolio of tax sources getting more diversified as their economy develops, until a tipping point, where richer countries start finding it harder to diversify further their tax revenue sources.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This 2019 Article IV Consultation focuses on Botswana near- and medium-term challenges and policy priorities and was prepared before COVID-19 became a global pandemic and resulted in unprecedented strains in global trade, commodity, and financial markets. Gross domestic product growth is forecasted to pick up to 4.4 percent in 2020 and 5.6 percent in 2021 as the diamond industry recovers somewhat, and a new copper mine comes on stream. Growth will ease back to around 4 percent over the medium term. Risks to the outlook include faster-than-anticipated slowdown in key trading partners, shifts in consumer preferences to synthetic diamonds, and climate shocks. The size and pace of the planned adjustment are consistent with Botswana’s fiscal space, but the composition of the adjustment should protect efficient capital and social spending. Furthermore, given that buffers are being eroded, it is critical that consolidation starts as envisaged in FY2020, as it would help start addressing external imbalances and contribute to a gradual rebuilding of buffers over the medium term. In order to strengthen the monetary transmission mechanism and deepen the domestic financial market, there is a need to develop the secondary market for government securities, leverage Fintech, facilitate the attachment of collateral, and improve credit information.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This paper integrates into the Fiscal Transparency Code (FTC) a new fourth pillar (Pillar IV) on natural resource revenue management. This completes the pending update to the IMF's FTC, as set out by staff in 2014 (see IMF 2014a).
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights Mongolia’s promising longer-term prospects given its abundant natural resources. In recent years, however, the economy has faced substantial challenges, as external shocks and expansionary fiscal and monetary policies have compounded structural weaknesses. Mongolia remains heavily exposed to external shocks, given its export profile, and a key challenge will be to avoid the boom-bust cycles of the past. The discussions with authorities have focused on improving the fiscal framework and strengthening policy discipline, complemented by structural reforms to boost diversification and competitiveness and by efforts to strengthen and better target the social safety net.
Mr. Jack Calder


L’administration des recettes fiscales tirées de ressources naturelles présente des difficultés particulières. Ce manuel est l’un des premiers ouvrages à s’intéresser de près à l’efficacité de l’administration des recettes issues des industries extractives. Il fournit aux décideurs politiques et aux agents des pays en développement et émergents des instructions pratiques pour mettre en place un cadre juridique, une organisation et des procédures solides pour gérer les recettes issues de ces industries. Il aborde le thème de la transparence et de sa promotion face une demande croissante des parties prenantes nationales et internationales pour plus de clarté et de responsabilité dans l’administration des recettes publiques tirées des ressources naturelles. Il approfondit également les solutions pour que les pays en développement parviennent à renforcer leurs capacités techniques et managériales pour mieux administrer ces recettes.

Mr. Enrique A Gelbard, Corinne Deléchat, Ms. Ejona Fuli, Mr. Mumtaz Hussain, Mr. Ulrich Jacoby, Mrs. Dafina Glaser, Mr. Marco Pani, Mr. Gustavo Ramirez, and Rui Xu
Ce document analyse la persistance de la fragilité dans certains pays d'Afrique subsaharienne et la coexistence de multiples dimensions de la faiblesse de l'État. L'étude passe également en revue les caractéristiques de la fragilité, et ses liens avec les conflits et l'action internationale en faveur des états fragiles, avant de dresser un état des lieux de la situation et des domaines dans lesquels la résilience a progressé. Elle s'intéresse également au rôle des politiques et institutions budgétaires, et analyse les phases d'accélération et de ralentissement de la croissance. Une analyse du cas de sept pays précise certain des principaux facteurs en jeu et illustre la diversité des voies suivies, en soulignant l'importance de l'échelonnement des réformes. Enfin, l'étude se termine par une synthèse des principaux résultats et conséquences pratiques.
Mr. Jack Calder


Los ingresos derivados de los recursos naturales suelen plantear desafíos singulares para la administración tributaria. Este Manual es uno de los primeros de su tipo que se enfoca en la administración eficaz de los ingresos provenientes de las industrias extractivas. Ofrece a las autoridades y los funcionarios en las economías en desarrollo y de mercados emergentes directrices prácticas para el establecimiento de un marco jurídico robusto, una organización y procedimientos para la gestión de los ingresos de estas industrias. Examina la transparencia y la manera de fomentarla ante las crecientes exigencias de claridad y rendición de cuentas en la administración de los ingresos públicos generados por las industrias extractivas, y analiza la forma en que los países en desarrollo pueden reforzar su capacidad gerencial y técnica para administrar estos ingresos.