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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper discusses The Gambia’s Second Review Under the Staff-Monitored Program (SMP). The program is broadly on track. All quantitative targets for end-December 2017 and end-March 2018 were met as were most of the structural benchmarks, with three of them needing to be re-phased and redefined. However, the continuous target on contracting new nonconcessional external debt was breached, owing to a US$25 million loan. The IMF staff supports the completion of the second review under the SMP. The IMF staff also encourages the authorities to ensure macroeconomic stability and step up the pace of structural reforms to strengthen economic governance and tackle the legacy of debilitating public debt to pave the way for a possible Extended Credit Facility arrangement.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This Selected Issues paper discusses the designing and implementing of Kuwait’s fiscal policy for the medium term. Fiscal policy has a major role to play in supporting macrostability and diversification. The fiscal strategy design and implementation on a yearly basis are based on a few key areas such as determining targets or ceilings for major fiscal parameters for a three-year rolling framework with binding next budget year and indicative two outer years, establishing a clear process for expressing policy objectives and their link to expenditure, etc. The illustrative budget sequencing with the fiscal strategy spearheading medium-term fiscal policymaking and linked to the annual budget process would support fiscal policy implementation.
International Monetary Fund
Depuis plusieurs années, le FMI publie un nombre croissant de rapports et autres documents couvrant l'évolution et les tendances économiques et financières dans les pays membres. Chaque rapport, rédigé par une équipe des services du FMI à la suite d'entretiens avec des représentants des autorités, est publié avec l'accord du pays concerné.
International Monetary Fund
Program implementation is satisfactory and economic activity is recovering in Mauritania. The budget preserves fiscal discipline and protects infrastructures and social spending. Greater flexibility in the exchange rate and an enhanced monetary policy framework will help build reserves. The structural program continues to focus on improving the business climate. The commitment for continued fiscal consolidation is commended by Executive Directors. This will help strengthen the country’s resilience to external shocks, improve the country’s prospects for mobilizing external support, sustain economic growth, create jobs, and reduce poverty.
Mr. Rolando Ossowski, Mr. Steven A Barnett, Mr. James Daniel, and Mr. Jeffrey M. Davis


This chapter examines whether funds can help countries pursue good macroeconomic, and especially fiscal policies, and consequent design issues. Nonrenewable resource funds (NRF) have been suggested as a way of dealing with the effects of price variability, making it easier to put revenues aside when prices are high so that they can be made available to maintain expenditures when prices are low. Funds may also serve as mechanisms to allow part of the nonrenewable resource wealth to be shared by future generations. A detailed evaluation of country experience suggests that NRFs have been associated with a variety of operating rules and fiscal policy experience. In several cases, rules have been bypassed or changed and they do not themselves seem to have effectively constrained spending, and the integration of the fund's operations with overall fiscal policy has often proven problematic. Whether the political economy arguments for an NRF outweigh the potential disadvantages will need to be considered based on the situation in each country.

Mr. Ugo Fasano-Filho
The main purposes of this paper are to review the operational modalities and experience of oil funds currently in place in Norway, Chile (copper), the State of Alaska, Venezuela, Kuwait, and Oman, and to draw some preliminary conclusions on their contribution to enhance fiscal management. The outcome so far of their experience has been mixed, with differences among countries reflecting the variety of objectives attached to the funds, the challenges in adhering to established rules, the institutional set-up. and the soundness of the overall fiscal discipline in each country (or state).
International Monetary Fund


The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries face important policy challenges and opportunities. This paper covers the economic developments and policies since 1980; the impact of the GCC's external environment; the medium-term economic prospects; the broad outlines of a common adjustment and reform strategy, and the implications of adjustment in the GCC countries on the rest of the Middle East and North Africa region.

Mr. P. van den Boogaerde


Arab financial assistance to developing - particularly Arab - countries rose sharply between 1973 and 1980 but fell gradually through the 1980s, owing mainly to weakening oil prices. As a percent of GNP, however, Arab contributions remain the largest among major donors. This paper surveys the volume and distribution of Arab financing from 1973 to 1989.

International Monetary Fund


This paper discusses the possibility of an IMF that would be based fully on the special drawing right (SDR). The paper explores the basic economic justification for a General Department restructured in this way, the broad outline of the structure that would have to be established, the liquidity effects that would have to be considered, and the effects of these changes on other provisions. It also discusses some of the simplifications that would be brought about, and the steps involved in the transition from an IMF consisting primarily of currencies to one based fully on the SDR.