Mr. Ralph Chami, Elorm Darkey, and Mr. Oral Williams
We use a unique data set for 115 countries, from 2000–18, and 5-year non-overlapping averages to explore the impact of technical assitance on revenue mobilization. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first such effort to determine a direct relationship between technical assistance and the improvement in tax revenues. The paper finds that technical assistance significantly and positively increases tax revenues. Both income per capita and openness were found to positively improve the tax ratio in line with findings in the literature. Dynamic estimations also uncovered a long-run relationship among technical assistance, income per capita, openness, and tax revenues. This result further underscores that it takes time to build capacity and institutional resilience.
Amine Hammadi, Marshall Mills, Nelson Sobrinho, Mr. Vimal V Thakoor, and Ricardo Velloso
Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) tend to lag those in most other regions in terms of
governance and perceptions of corruption. Weak governance undermines economic
performance through various channels, including deficiencies in government functions and
distortions to economic incentives. It thus stands to reason that SSA countries could
strengthen their economic performance by improving governance and reducing corruption.
This paper estimates that strengthening governance and mitigating corruption in the region
could be associated with large growth dividends in the long run. While the process would
take considerable time and effort, moving the average SSA country governance level to the
global average could increase the region’s GDP per capita growth by about 1-2 percentage
This paper provides an empirical analysis of how the frequency and severity of terrorism affect
government revenue and expenditure during the period 1970–2013 using a panel dataset on
153 countries. We find that terrorism has only a marginal negative effect on tax revenue
performance, after controlling for economic and institutional factors. This effect is also not
robust to alternative specifications and empirical strategies. On the other hand, we find strong
evidence that terrorism is associated with an increase in military spending as a percent of GDP
(and a share of total government expenditure). Our estimations reveal that this impact is
greater when terrorist attacks are frequent and result in a large number of fatalities. Empirical
findings also support the view that public finances in developing and low-income countries
are more vulnerable to terrorism than those in countries that are richer and diversified.
Ms. Katrin Elborgh-Woytek and Mr. Julian Berengaut
The paper analyzes the initial output decline in transition economies by estimating a crosssection model stressing two major factors-conflicts and the legacies of the Soviet period. We link the Soviet legacies in place at the outset of the transition to the subsequent path for the development of market-related institutions. Institutional development (as proxied by measures of corruption) is used as an intermediate variable. An instrumental variable approach is followed to derive estimates that are not biased by the possible endogeneity of corruption with respect to output developments. Assuming that the extent of Soviet legacies was positively correlated with the length of the communist rule allows us to use the years under the Soviet regime as an instrument.