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  • Poland, Republic of x
  • Public Administration; Public Sector Accounting and Audits x
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Chikako Baba, Cristina Batog, Enrique Flores, Mr. Borja Gracia, Ms. Izabela Karpowicz, Piotr Kopyrski, Mr. James Roaf, Ms. Anna Shabunina, and Xin Cindy Xu
Europe’s high pre-existing level of financial development can partly account for the relatively smaller reach of fintech payment and lending activities compared to some other regions. But fintech activity is growing rapidly. Digital payment schemes are expanding within countries, although cross-border and pan-euro area instruments are not yet widespread, notwithstanding important enabling EU level regulation and the establishment of instant payments by the ECB. Automated lending models are developing but remain limited mainly to unsecured consumer lending. While start-ups are pursuing platform-based approaches under minimal regulation, there is a clear trend for fintech companies to acquire balance sheets and, relatedly, banking licenses as they expand. Meanwhile, competition is pushing many traditional banks to adopt fintech instruments, either in-house or by acquisition, thereby causing them to increasingly resemble balanced sheet-based fintech companies. These developments could improve the efficiency and reach of financial intermediation while also adding to profitability pressures for some banks. Although the COVID-19 pandemic could call into question the viability of platform-based lending fintechs funding models given that investors could face much higher delinquencies, it may also offer growth opportunities to those fintechs that are positioned to take advantage of the ongoing structural shift in demand toward virtual finance.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
The Polish government is making good progress with implementing the ambitious Budget System Reforms (BSR) program, first approved by the Council of Ministers (CoM) in 2016. The government demonstrates a high level of commitment to these reforms and is making significant progress in implementing the recommendations of earlier FAD missions with the support of the resident advisor.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

The Polish government is making good progress with implementing the ambitious Budget System Reforms (BSR) program, first approved by the Council of Ministers (CoM) in 2016. The government demonstrates a high level of commitment to these reforms and is making significant progress in implementing the recommendations of earlier FAD missions with the support of the resident advisor.

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
This Technical Assistance Report discusses the findings and recommendations made by the IMF mission about building forward estimates and standardizing the chart of accounts in Poland. The workshops identified a range of cross-cutting issues, with recommendations provided for how to apply them more broadly over the next two years, with ongoing short-term expert support. It is recommended to apply a consistent approach to treating demand driven entitlement programs, by using the existing detailed projection models and methodologies that lie within agencies and funds, but ensuring that all indices and volume parameters are in line with central macroeconomic assumptions to ensure consistency.
Uwe Böwer
State-owned enterprises (SOEs) play an important role in Emerging Europe’s economies, notably in the energy and transport sectors. Based on a new firm-level dataset, this paper reviews the SOE landscape, assesses SOE performance across countries and vis-à-vis private firms, and evaluates recent SOE governance reform experience in 11 Emerging European countries, as well as Sweden as a benchmark. Profitability and efficiency of resource allocation of SOEs lag those of private firms in most sectors, with substantial cross-country variation. Poor SOE performance raises three main risks: large and risky contingent liabilities could stretch public finances; sizeable state ownership of banks coupled with poor governance could threaten financial stability; and negative productivity spillovers could affect the economy at large. SOE governance frameworks are partly weak and should be strengthened along three lines: fleshing out a consistent ownership policy; giving teeth to financial oversight; and making SOE boards more professional.