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Ms. Pritha Mitra, Amr Hosny, Gohar Minasyan, Mr. Mark Fischer, and Gohar Abajyan
Raising the Middle East and Central Asia’s long-term growth prospects is critical for meeting the region's pressing need for jobs and higher living standards.
International Monetary Fund
This 2012 Article IV Consultation focuses on Chad’s economic developments and policies. Economic performance in 2011–2012 has been marked by an oncoming stream of several large industrial projects. The IMF report highlights that growth slowed in 2011 and inflation accelerated at year’s end, while the balance of payments strengthened. The nonoil primary deficit declined in 2011, and the overall fiscal balance swung from a deficit to a small surplus leaving room for private-sector credit expansion. A new approach, developed in collaboration with international partners (including the Food and Agriculture Organisation and World Food Programme), focuses on improving water management, warehouse capacity, and information systems.
International Monetary Fund
The countries of the Middle East and North Africa, and the Caucasus and Central Asia have the highest output volatility in the world. Fiscal policy is a powerful tool that can help dampen the business cycles. This paper analyzes the cyclical properties of fiscal policy in the region during the past four decades and explores whether the response during the current global economic crisis is different in 2009. Across a sample of 28 countries, we find that fiscal policy has typically amplified the business cycles and that it has been more procyclical in good times than in bad times. However, the response to the current crisis has differed from the past in that about half of the countries responded countercyclically in 2009. Going forward, the fiscal space during downturns varies widely across countries, depending on the level of debt, access to capital markets, and natural resource wealth. Not surprisingly, the oil exporters have more fiscal room than oil importers, although there are some oil importers that still have room to respond countercyclically in bad times.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund

This Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya’s 2008 Article IV Consultation is focused on containing public expenditure to reduce inflation pressures, strengthening the monetary policy framework, and advancing financial sector reforms. Libya’s macroeconomic performance has been strong. GDP growth is broad-based and has strengthened further. Both the fiscal and external current account positions are in large surplus, and net foreign assets are accumulating rapidly. The medium-term outlook is favorable, underpinned by the expectation of high oil prices and increased infrastructure spending.

Mr. Johannes Wiegand
High oil prices have once again led to large external surpluses of oil exporting countries, similar to the 1970s and 1980s. This paper analyzes the extent to which (i) oil exporters use bank deposits to invest these surpluses, and (ii) banks are lending on these funds to emerging market economies. Bank recycling of petro dollars to emerging market economies is found to be almost as important as in the 1970s and 1980s, even though during the current boom, petro dollar bank flows tend to originate in countries like Russia, Libya, or Nigeria rather than in the Middle East. As one consequence, a fall in oil prices could yet again disrupt financing flows to emerging economies. Especially at risk could be countries that rely heavily on bank loans to finance external deficits, many of them in Emerging Europe.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Turbulences sur les marchés financiers ; Strauss-Kahn prend la tête du FMI ; réchauffement climatique ; intégration financière en Europe ; finance islamique ; vulnérabilité des marchés émergents ; leçons de la crise des subprimes ; intégration du Maghreb ; gestion des finances publiques dans les pays producteurs de pétrole ; point sur l'actualité.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Turbulencias del mercado mundial; Strauss-Kahn, nuevo Director Gerente del FMI; Calentamiento global; Europa: La integración financiera; Las finanzas islámicas; Vulnerabilidad de los mercados emergentes; Agitación en el mercado de hipotecas de alto riesgo: Lecciones; La integración del Magreb; Los productores de petróleo: Gestión fiscal; Notas breves.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Global market turmoil; Strauss-Kahn to head IMF; Global warming; Europe: Financial integration; Islamic finance; Emerging market vulnerability; Subprime turmoil: Lessons; Maghreb integration; Oil producers: Fiscal management; News briefs.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.