While unemployment rates in Europe declined after the global financial crisis until 2018/19, the incidence of long-term unemployment, the share of people who have been unemployed for more than one year to the total unemployed, remained high. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic could aggravate the long-term unemployment. This paper explores factors associated with long-term unemployment in European countries, using panel of 25 European countries over the period 2000–18. We find that skill mismatches, labor market matching efficiency, and labor market policies are associated with the incidence of long-term unemployment. Among different types of active labor market policies, training and start-up incentives are found to be effective in reducing long-term unemployment.
This Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix paper analyzes monetary transmission in Croatia. The evidence analyzed in this paper supports the view that monetary policy in Croatia is not an effective tool for aggregate demand management. One of the main conclusions is that financial conditions in the economy are only weakly correlated with the monetary policy stance. Monetary policy can exercise some control over money-market interest rates, but its influence on lending rates is uncertain and comes with long lags. The paper also examines determinants of lending rates and domestic spreads in Croatia.