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Charlotte J. Lundgren, Mr. Alun H. Thomas, and Mr. Robert C York
Un nombre croissant de pays d'Afrique subsaharienne disposent de ressources naturelles considérables ; leur extraction pourrait générer d'importantes retombées financières qui présentent un potentiel inédit de croissance économique et de développement. Pourtant, force est de constater qu’il n’est pas simple de mettre ces richesses au service du développement économique et de l’amélioration des niveaux de vie. On a beaucoup écrit sur la « malédiction des ressources naturelles ». Cette publication examine ce que peuvent faire les pouvoirs publics face à ces défis et présente les principales considérations de politique économique et les options envisageables pour gérer les ressources naturelles, en s'appuyant sur l'expérience des pays d'Afrique subsaharienne et d'autres régions, sur la dernière analyse du FMI et ses conseils en la matière, ainsi que sur des études de la Banque mondiale et les travaux d'éminents universitaires. Chaque chapitre comporte une liste de documents dont la lecture est recommandée aux décideurs et autres parties prenantes pour les informer plus en détail sur les fondements théoriques et analytiques des conseils fournis.
Charlotte J. Lundgren, Mr. Alun H. Thomas, and Mr. Robert C York
Sizeable natural resource endowments and potentially large financial inflows from their extraction provide an unparalleled opportunity for economic growth and development in a growing number of sub-Saharan African countries. Empirical evidence suggests, however, that translating this resource wealth into stronger economic performance and a higher standard of living has proven challenging. Much has been written about the resource curse. This publication focuses on solutions to the challenges and outlines the main policy considerations and options in managing natural resource wealth, drawing on experience within and outside sub-Saharan Africa and referring closely to the latest analysis and policy advice in this area by the IMF, the World Bank, and leading academic research. A key feature of each chapter is a recommended reading list for those who wish additional, more in-depth material on these issues to further inform policymakers and other stakeholders on the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of the policy advice.
Charlotte J. Lundgren, Mr. Alun H. Thomas, and Mr. Robert C York
Sizeable natural resource endowments and potentially large financial inflows from their extraction provide an unparalleled opportunity for economic growth and development in a growing number of sub-Saharan African countries. Empirical evidence suggests, however, that translating this resource wealth into stronger economic performance and a higher standard of living has proven challenging. Much has been written about the resource curse. This publication focuses on solutions to the challenges and outlines the main policy considerations and options in managing natural resource wealth, drawing on experience within and outside sub-Saharan Africa and referring closely to the latest analysis and policy advice in this area by the IMF, the World Bank, and leading academic research. A key feature of each chapter is a recommended reading list for those who wish additional, more in-depth material on these issues to further inform policymakers and other stakeholders on the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of the policy advice.
Mr. Rabah Arezki, Ms. Catherine A Pattillo, Mr. Marc G Quintyn, and Min Zhu

Abstract

In the years following the global financial crisis, many low-income countries experienced rapid recovery and strong economic growth. However, many are now facing enormous difficulties because of rapidly rising food and fuel prices, with the threat of millions of people being pushed into poverty around the globe. The risk of continued food price volatility is a systemic challenge, and a failure in one country has been shown to have a profound impact on entire regions. This volume addresses the challenges of commodity price volatility for low-income countries and explores some macroeconomic policy options for responding to commodity price shocks. The book then looks at inclusive growth policies to address inequality in commodity-exporting countries, particularly natural resource rich countries. Perspectives from the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, emerging Asia, and Mexico are presented and, finally, the role of the international donor community is examined. This volume is a must read for policymakers everywhere, from those in advanced, donor countries to those in countries with the poorest and most vulnerable populations.

Burcu Aydin
Will Ghana’s oil production from 2011 accelerate progress toward middle-income status, or will it retard gains in living standards through a possible "resource curse"? This paper examines the likelihood of "resource curse" effects, drawing on a dataset of 150 low and middle income countries from 1973 to 2008 using static and dynamic panel estimation techniques. Results confirm that resource rich countries in Ghana’s income range do experience slower growth than their more diversified peers, an effect that appears to be related to weaker governance. Provided that Ghana can preserve and improve its economic governance and also strengthen fiscal management, prospects look good for converting its oil wealth into sustained strong economic growth.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Climate Change: Stimulating a Green Recovery” looks at the global problem of climate change. With the world apparently on an economic recovery path, policymakers are looking at ways to limit the impact of climate change through broad international action. One of the challenges is to balance actions to mitigate climate change with measures to stimulate growth and prosperity. This issue of F&D also examines a variety of issues raised by the crisis—including the future of macroeconomics, explored by William White, former chief economist at the Bank for International Settlements, and the longer-term impact of the crisis on the United States, the world’s largest economy. Our “People in Economics” profile spotlights Joseph Stiglitz, the Nobel Laureate who “can’t get any respect at home.” We also look at the need for rebalancing growth in Asia, which is leading the world out of recession, and we interview five influential Asians on the region’s fragile rebound. We turn our “Straight Talk” column over to Barbara Stocking of Oxfam, who makes a forceful case for stepping up help to the most vulnerable around the world. “Data Spotlight” looks at trends in inflation, which has fallen into negative territory in some countries during the crisis, and in “Point-Counterpoint,” two experts discuss the pros and cons of remittances—funds repatriated by migrant workers to family and friends back home. “Back to Basics” gives a primer on international trade.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Climate Change: Stimulating a Green Recovery” looks at the global problem of climate change. With the world apparently on an economic recovery path, policymakers are looking at ways to limit the impact of climate change through broad international action. One of the challenges is to balance actions to mitigate climate change with measures to stimulate growth and prosperity. This issue of F&D also examines a variety of issues raised by the crisis—including the future of macroeconomics, explored by William White, former chief economist at the Bank for International Settlements, and the longer-term impact of the crisis on the United States, the world’s largest economy. Our “People in Economics” profile spotlights Joseph Stiglitz, the Nobel Laureate who “can’t get any respect at home.” We also look at the need for rebalancing growth in Asia, which is leading the world out of recession, and we interview five influential Asians on the region’s fragile rebound. We turn our “Straight Talk” column over to Barbara Stocking of Oxfam, who makes a forceful case for stepping up help to the most vulnerable around the world. “Data Spotlight” looks at trends in inflation, which has fallen into negative territory in some countries during the crisis, and in “Point-Counterpoint,” two experts discuss the pros and cons of remittances—funds repatriated by migrant workers to family and friends back home. “Back to Basics” gives a primer on international trade.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Au sommaire de ce numéro, intitulé « La lutte contre le changement climatique au service d'une reprise verte » : le problème mondial du changement climatique. Maintenant que l'économie mondiale semble sur la voie de la reprise, les dirigeants cherchent à limiter les effets du changement climatique en agissant à l'échelle internationale. Ils devront en particulier concilier les mesures visant à atténuer les effets du changement climatique et les actions à mener pour stimuler la croissance et assurer la prospérité. Ce numéro de F&D aborde plusieurs questions soulevées par la crise : l’avenir de la macroéconomie, sur lequel s’interroge William White, ancien économiste en chef à la Banque des règlements internationaux, et les effets à long terme de la crise sur les États-Unis, la plus grande économie du monde. La rubrique «Paroles d’économistes» est consacrée à Joseph Stiglitz, le lauréat du prix Nobel qui «n’arrive pas à être respecté chez lui». Nous examinons aussi la nécessité de rééquilibrer la croissance en Asie, première région du monde à sortir de la récession, et cinq personnalités asiatiques influentes donnent leur avis sur le redressement fragile de la région. Dans la rubrique «Entre nous», Barbara Stocking, d’Oxfam, présente des arguments forts en faveur d’un accroissement de l’aide pour les plus démunis. «Gros plan» examine l’évolution de l’inflation, qui est devenue négative dans certains pays pendant la crise et dans «Le pour et le contre», des experts proposent des points de vue différents sur les envois de fonds des travailleurs émigrés à leur famille et amis restés au pays. « L’ABC de l’économie » explique les principes du commerce international.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
En “Cambio climático: Estimular una recuperación verde” se aborda el problema del cambio climático. Con la recuperación de la economía mundial aparentemente en marcha, las autoridades buscan maneras de limitar el impacto del cambio climático con medidas internacionales de gran alcance. Uno de los desafíos es conjugar las medidas para mitigar el cambio climático con las medidas en pro del crecimiento y la prosperidad. En este número de F&D se examinan además otras cuestiones planteadas por la crisis, como el futuro de la macroeconomía, en un artículo de William White, ex Economista Jefe del Banco de Pagos Internacionales; y el efecto a largo plazo de la crisis en Estados Unidos, la economía más grande del mundo. En “Gente del mundo de la economía” se entrevista a Joseph Stiglitz, el premio Nobel que “no es nada respetado en su propio país”. Analizamos también la necesidad de reequilibrar el crecimiento en Asia, que está a la cabeza de la recuperación mundial, y entrevistamos al respecto a cinco influyentes personajes de esa región. En “Hablando claro”, Barbara Stocking, de Oxfam, presenta argumentos de peso para incrementar la ayuda a los más vulnerables del mundo. En “Un vistazo a las cifras” se analizan las tendencias de la inflación, que cayó en terreno negativo en algunos países durante la crisis; y en “Punto y contrapunto” dos expertos debaten las ventajas y desventajas de las remesas de los trabajadores emigrantes a sus familias y amigos. En “Vuelta a lo esencial” se repasan aspectos básicos del comercio internacional.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Climate Change: Stimulating a Green Recovery” looks at the global problem of climate change. With the world apparently on an economic recovery path, policymakers are looking at ways to limit the impact of climate change through broad international action. One of the challenges is to balance actions to mitigate climate change with measures to stimulate growth and prosperity. This issue of F&D also examines a variety of issues raised by the crisis—including the future of macroeconomics, explored by William White, former chief economist at the Bank for International Settlements, and the longer-term impact of the crisis on the United States, the world’s largest economy. Our “People in Economics” profile spotlights Joseph Stiglitz, the Nobel Laureate who “can’t get any respect at home.” We also look at the need for rebalancing growth in Asia, which is leading the world out of recession, and we interview five influential Asians on the region’s fragile rebound. We turn our “Straight Talk” column over to Barbara Stocking of Oxfam, who makes a forceful case for stepping up help to the most vulnerable around the world. “Data Spotlight” looks at trends in inflation, which has fallen into negative territory in some countries during the crisis, and in “Point-Counterpoint,” two experts discuss the pros and cons of remittances—funds repatriated by migrant workers to family and friends back home. “Back to Basics” gives a primer on international trade.